بررسی برخی عوامل موثر بر غلظت سرب و کادمیوم در نواحی مختلف بیابان سجزی با تاکید بر پراکنش پوسته‌های زیستی خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیابان‌زدایی، دانشکده کویرشناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، ایران.

2 نویسنده مسئول، استادیار گروه مدیریت مناطق خشک و بیابانی، دانشکده کویرشناسی، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران.

3 استاد بخش تحقیقات بیولوژی خاک، مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

10.22069/jwsc.2022.19353.3483

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: فلزات سنگین از جمله آلاینده‌هایی هستند که در نتیجه فعالیت‌های صنعتی در جوامع انسانی، به محیط زیست وارد شده و به مرور زمان، سلامت موجودات زنده و انسان‌ها را به خطر می‌اندازند. برای کاهش اثرات منفی فلزات سنگین، استفاده از مواد بیوجاذب تولید شده از ضایعات صنعتی و کشاورزی، بعنوان یک روش ارزان قیمت مورد توجه بوده است. همچنین روش‌های زیستی از قبیل استقرار برخی گونه‌های گیاهی با قابلیت جذب فلزات سنگین در نواحی آلوده صنعتی یا معادن فلزات، نتایج قابل قبولی داشته است. علاوه بر این پوسته‌های زیستی خاک نیز نقش موثری در جذب فلزات سنگین و خاک پالایی دارند. پوسته‌های زیستی خاک، اجتماعی تنگاتنگ از گلسنگ‌ها، خزه‌ها، جلبک‌ها و سایر ریزجانداران خاک هستند که فرایندهای ابتدایی اکوسیستم خاک را تحت تاثیر قرار می‌دهند. در این پژوهش برخی ویژگی‌های خاک و غلظت کادمیوم و سرب در نقاط مختلف دشت سجزی استان اصفهان مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند و تاثیر وجود پوسته‌های زیستی بر غلظت آلاینده‌ها بررسی شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: پس از اندازه‌گیری اسیدیته، هدایت الکتریکی، کربن آلی، بافت خاک، غلظت سرب و کادمیوم، رابطه پراکنش پوسته‌های زیستی با ویژگی‌های خاک و غلظت کادمیوم و سرب به روش تجزیه مولفه‌های اصلی بررسی شد. مهمترین ویژگی‌های تاثیرگذار با استفاده از روش تجزیه واریانس یکطرفه مشخص شدند. بر اساس آزمون دانکن، میانگین مقادیر ویژگی‌های خاک که در پنج روستای واقع در دشت سجزی اندازه‌گیری شده بودند، مقایسه شدند و نقاطی که کادمیوم و سرب بیشتری داشتند، تعیین شدند.
یافته‌ها: در همه نقاط مورد بررسی میانگین مقادیر سرب قابل جذب بیش از 80 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم (حد مجاز) بدست آمد. مقادیر کادمیوم نیز در فساران و ایستگاه منابع طبیعی سجزی به ترتیب به مقدار 6/0±8/2 و 18/0±38/2 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم اندازه‌گیری شدند و بیش ازحد مجاز آن (دو میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) بودند. همچنین نتایج آزمون تجزیه مولفه‌های اصلی نشان داد در مولفه اول که 4/67 درصد کل واریانس داده‌هاست، میزان همبستگی درصد سیلت 438/0 بود و برای درصد ماسه نیز 451/0- محاسبه شد. در مولفه دوم نیز که 6/48 درصد کل واریانس داده‌ها را توجیه می‌کند، ضریب همبستگی مقادیر کادمیوم و سرب به ترتیب 388/0 و 438/0- بدست آمد. با مقایسه ویژگی‌های خاک در نقاط مختلف معلوم شد که میانگین مقادیر قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی خاک، ماده آلی، درصد سیلت، غلظت کادمیوم و سرب قابل جذب در آن نقاط متفاوت بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: غلظت زیاد سرب و کادمیوم در نقاط فاقد پوسته‌های زیستی شامل ایستگاه سجزی و فساران عمدتا ناشی از سوء مدیریت انسانی و احداث کارخانجات، معادن و جاده‌ها بود. همچنین برخی ویژگی‌های ذاتی خاک از قبیل درصد ذرات خاک، در استقرار پوسته‌های زیستی موثر هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the factors affecting the concentration of lead and cadmium in different points of the Sejzi desert emphasizing the distribution of biological soil crusts

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Kashi Zenouzi 1
  • Seyed Hasan Kaboli 2
  • Kazem Khavazi 3
1 Ph.D. Student in Combat to Desertification Department, Faculty of Desert Studies, University of Semnan, Iran.
2 . Corresponding Author, Assistant Prof., Dept. of Arid Lands and Desert Management, Faculty of Desert Studies, University of Semnan, Iran.
3 Professor, Dept. of Soil Biology, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Heavy metals are one of the most common pollutants that enter the environment due to industrial activities in human societies and endanger the health of organisms and humans over time. Recently, to decrease negative effects of heavy metals in the environment, the use of bio sorbents produced from industrial and agricultural wastes has been replaced by other methods as a low-cost method. Other biological methods, such as the establishment of some plant species that have the potential to absorb heavy metals, have had acceptable results in the areas around industrial estates or metal mines. Based on Researches' results in other parts of the world, biocrusts play an important role in the uptake of heavy metals and soil purification. Biocrusts are a close community of lichens, mosses, algae, and other soil microorganisms that affect the basic processes of the soil ecosystem. In this study, some of the soil properties and cadmium and lead concentrations in different parts of the Sejzi plain of Isfahan province were investigated and the effect of biological crusts on the concentration of pollutants was investigated.
Materials and Methods After measuring acidity, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, soil texture, lead, and cadmium concentrations, the relationship between the distribution of biocrusts with soil properties and cadmium and lead concentrations was investigated by principal component analysis. Then, using one-way ANOVA, the most important effective features are identified. Based on Duncan's test, the mean values of soil properties measured in five villages located in Sejzi plain were compared with each other at 95% probability level, and finally, the soil of points of Sejzi plain with higher cadmium and lead concentrations were determined.
Results: According In all studied sites, the average absorbable lead was more than 80 mg/kg (permissible level). The amounts of cadmium were measured at Fasaran and Sejzi at 2.8±0.6 and 2.38±0.18 mg/kg, respectively, that had been exceeded it's permissible level (2 mg/kg). Also, the results of the principal component analysis showed that in the first component, which is 67.4% of the total variance of the data, the correlation between the percentage of silt was 0.438 and the percentage of sand was measured -0.451. In the second component, which is justified about 48.6% of the total variance of the data, the correlation coefficient of the values of cadmium and lead were estimated 0.388 and -0.438, respectively. The comparison of soil properties in different places showed that the average values of soil salinity, organic matter, silt percentage, cadmium and lead are different in those places.
Conclusion: The high concentration of lead and cadmium levels in areas without biocrusts, including Sajzi and Fesaran, were mainly due to human mismanagement and construction of factories, mines, and roads. Also, some intrinsic properties of soil, such as soil texture were effective in the distribution and establishment of biological crusts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • Lichen
  • Principal Component Analyses (PCA)
  • Sejzi
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