اثر کمپوست و زئولیت در دوره های زمانی مختلف بر میزان فرسایش پاشمانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران.

2 نویسنده مسئول، دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران.

3 استاد گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران.

10.22069/jwsc.2022.19579.3503

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: فرسایش پاشمانی اولین مرحله فرآیند فرسایش آبی بوده که در نتیجه جدایش ذرات سطح خاک توسط قطرات باران صورت می‌گیرد. یکی از روش‌های کارا در راستای کاهش فرسایش پاشمانی خاک سطحی استفاده از افزودنی‌های خاک است. حفاظت از خاک در مرحله پاشمان می‌تواند نقش موثری در کاهش جدایش ذرات خاک، افزایش نفوذپذیری و در نهایت کاهش هدررفت خاک داشته باشد. هدف کلی از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تغییرات پاشمان کل، خالص بالادست و پایین‌دست با استفاده از افزودنی‌های کمپوست، زئولیت و نیز ترکیب آن‌ها بود. در این بین زئولیـت بـا دانـه‌بنـدی مطلـوب موجـب بهبـود خـواص هیدروفیزیکی خاک می‌گردد. هم‌چنین کمپوست می‌تواند موجب بهبود خصوصیات ساختمانی خاک شود. بنابراین برای انجام پژوهش حاضر از دو افزودنی زئولیت و کمپوست با مقادیر به‌ترتیب 07/0 و 09/0 گرم بر سانتی‌مترمربع و نیز ترکیب آن‌ها برای بررسی تغییرات فرسایش پاشمانی کل، خالص، بالادست و پایین‌دست خاک دارای بافت لومی‌شنی استفاده شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: خاک مورد استفاده از عمق صفر تا 20 سانتی‌متری جمع‌آوری و به آزمایشگاه انتقال داده شد. پژوهش در مقیاس فنجان‌های پاشمان در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و با استفاده از شبیه‌ساز باران در شدت 80 میلی‌متر بر ساعت انجام شد. هم‌چنین تغییرات دوره‌های زمانی برای بازه‌های زمانی 24 ساعت، دو، چهار، هشت، 16 و 32 هفته نیز ارزیابی شد. فرسایش پاشمانی با جمع‌آوری ذرات پاشمان‌یافته طی هر باران و سپس خشک کردن آنها در دمای 105 درجه سلسیوس برای مدت 24 ساعت اندازه‌گیری شد. خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک با استفاده از روش‌های رایج آزمایشگاهی تعیین شدند. داده‌های فرسایش پاشمانی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS و آزمون دانکن و GLM تجزیه و تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: آزمایش‌ها نشان دادند که کاربرد ترکیب کمپوست و زئولیت بر تغییرات پاشمان خاک بیشتر از اثر آن‌ها به صورت جداگانه بود. نتایج نشان داد که ترکیب کمپوست و زئولیت با درصد تغییرات پاشمان کل به‌ترتیب 93/68، 53/15، 51/49، 83/38، 83/38 و 66/77 درصد و پاشمان خالص به‌ترتیب 27/67، 9/10، 36/56، 72/32، 27/47 و 72/72 در دوره‌های زمانی 24 ساعت، دو، چهار، هشت، 16 و 32 هفته درصد بود. هم‌چنین درصد تغییرات فرسایش خاک برای بخش بالادست فنجان پاشمان برای ترکیب کمپوست و زئولیت به‌ترتیب 83/70، 83/20، 66/41،83/45، 16/29 و 33/83 درصد و برای بخش پایین دست فنجان پاشمان به‌ترتیب و 35/68، 92/13، 89/51، 70/36، 77/41 و 94/75 درصد مشاهده شد. بررسی تأثیر دوره‌های زمانی نشان داد که در دوره‌های زمانی 32 و هشت هفته بیش‌ترین کاهش در مقدار فرسایش پاشمانی مشاهده شد. نتایج آماری نشان داد که اثر بازه زمانی و تیمار و اثر متقابل آن‌ها بر کاهش پاشمان کل و پاشمان خالص در سطح 99 درصد معنی‌دار بود. هم‌چنین اثر بازه زمانی و اثر متقابل بازه زمانی و تیمار بر کاهش پاشمان بالادست و پایین‌دست (بجز اثر متقابل بازه زمانی و تیمار بر پاشمان بالادست) در سطح 99 درصد معنی‌دار بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: اضافه کردن این افزودنی‌ها به خاک باعث کاهش فرسایش پاشمانی خاک شد. هم‌چنین اثر گذشت زمان نیز باعث تأثیر بیش‌تر افزودنی‌ها برای کاهش مقدار فرسایش پاشمان گردید. در بین افزودنی‌های مورد استفاده اثر افزودنی کمپوست بر کاهش فرسایش پاشمانی بیش‌تر بود چرا که این افزودنی با افزایش پایداری و تخلخل خاک می‌تواند باعث اتصال ذرات خاک شده و در نتیجه مقاومت آن‌ها را در برابر انرژی باران افزایش دهد. در نهایت می‌توان بیان نمود که کاربرد افزودنی‌های به صورت جداگانه و ترکیبی می‌تواند تغییرات مثبتی بر کاهش پاشمان خاک داشته باشد که خود منجربه کاهش هدررفت خاک در دراز مدت خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Compost and Zeolite at Various Time Periods on Amount of Soil Splash

نویسندگان [English]

  • Niusha Mohabbati 1
  • Leila Gholami 2
  • Ataollah Kavian 3
  • Fatemeh Shokrian 4
1 M.Sc. Graduate, Dept. of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran.
2 Corresponding Author, Associate Prof., Dept. of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran.
3 Professor, Dept. of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran.
4 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Splash erosion is the first stage of water erosion process, which results of the particles detachment of soil surface cause by raindrops. One of the efficient methods for reducing splash erosion is the usage of soil conditioners. Soil conservation at splash stage can play an effective role in reducing detachment of soil particles, increasing infiltration and ultimately reducing soil loss. The general purpose of the present study was to changes investigation of the total, net, upstream and downstream splash using conditioners of compost, zeolite and their composition. Zeolite with suitable granolometery cause the improvement of hydrophysical characteristics of soil. In addition, the compost can cause the improvement the structural characteristics of soil. Therefore, in this study used from two conditioners of zeolite and compost with amounts of 5.8 and 7.1 g cm-2, respectively, and their combination for changes investigation of total splash, net splash, upstream and downstream splash with soil texture of loamy-sandy.
Materials and methods: The used soil was collected from the depth of 0 to 20 cm and was transferred to the laboratory. The study was performed on scale of splash cups and laboratory conditions using the rainfall simulator at rainfall intensity of 80 mm h-1. Also changes of time periods evaluated for durations of 24 h, two, four, eight, 16 and 32 week. Splash erosion measured by collecting the splash particles during each rainfall and then drying at temperature of 105° C. Physical and chemical characteristics of soil determined using current methods of laboratory. Data of splash erosion analyzed using SPSS software, Duncan test and GLM.
Results: The experiments showed that the application of the combination of compost and zeolite on changing the soil splash was the more than their separation effects. The results showed that the combination of compost and zeolite of total splash was with rates of 68.93, 15.53, 49.51, 38.83, 38.83 and 77.66%, respectively, and net splash of 67.27, 10.9, 56.36, 32.72, 47.27 and 72.72% at time periods of 24 h, two, four, eight, 16 and 32 week, respectively. Also, the changes percent of splash changes for the composition of compost and zeolite at the upstream of splash cup observed with amounts of 70.83, 20.83, 83.66, 45.41, 29.16 and 83.33%, respectively, and downstream was amounts of 68.35, 13.92, 51.89, 36.70, 41.77 and 75.94% , respectively. The effect study of time periods showed that the time periods of 32 and eight week had the more reduce at the amount of splash erosion. The statistical results showed that the effect of time period and treatment and their interaction on reducing the total splash and net splash was significant at the level of 99%. Also, the effect of time period and the interaction effect of time period and treatment on reducing the upstream and downstream splash was significant at level of 99%.
Conclusion: Adding these conditioners to the soil cause the reducing the soil splash erosion. The time effect also caused the more effect of the conditioners for reducing the amount of slash erosion. Among the used conditioners, the effect of compost conditioner was more than two other conditioners on reducing splash erosion, because this conditioner by increasing the stability and porosity of soil can bind the soil particles and thus the resistance of soil particles increase against the rainfall energy. Finally, it can be stated that the conditioners application separately and combination can be have the positive effects on decreasing soil splash that will lead to reducing soil loss at the long term.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil amendments
  • Soil erosion
  • Splash erosion
  • Time Periods
  • Up and Down-Direction Splash
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