1.Alm, E., Zimbler, D., Callahan, E., and Plomaritis, E. 2014. Patterns and persistence of antibiotic resistance in faecal indicator bacteria from freshwater recreational beaches. J. of Applied Microbiology. 117: 1. 273-285.
2.Alm, E.W., Burke, J., and Spain, A. 2003. Fecal indicator bacteria are abundant in wet sand at freshwater beaches. Water Research. 37: 16. 3978-3982.
3.Almasi, K., and Salmanouf, M. 2012. Quality analysis and determination of microbial indeces in the water of rivers in the western Caspian Sea, from Astara port to Anzali port. Biotechnology of Environmental Microorganisms (Biological Science). 6: 3. 1-7. (In Persian)
4.Bonilla, T.D., Nowosielski, K., Cuvelier, M., Hartz, A., Green, M., Esiobu, N., McCorquodale, D.S., Fleisher, J.M., and Rogerson, A. 2007. Prevalence and distribution of fecal indicator organisms in South Florida beach sand and preliminary assessment of health effects associated with beach sand exposure. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 54: 9. 1472-1482.
5.Caron, D.A., Garneau, M.È., Seubert, E., Howard, M.D., Darjany, L., Schnetzer, A., Cetinić, I., Filteau, G., Lauri, P., and Jones, B. 2010. Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California. Water Research. 44: 2. 385-416.
6.Clark, A., Turner, T., Dorothy, K.P., Goutham, J., Kalavati, C., and Rajanna, B. 2003. Health hazards due to pollution of waters along the coast of Visakhapatnam, east coast of India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 56: 3. 390-397.
7.Colford Jr, J.M., Wade, T.J., Schiff, K.C., Wright, C.C., Griffith, J.F., Sandhu, S.K., Burns, S., Sobsey, M., Lovelace, G., and Weisberg, S.B. 2007. Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contamination. Epidemiology. pp. 27-35.
8.Da Costa, P.M., Vaz-Pires, P., and Bernardo, F. 2006. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated in inflow, effluent and sludge from municipal sewage water treatment plants. Water Research. 40: 8. 1735-1740.
9.Danner, M.C., Robertson, A., Behrends, V., and Reiss, J. 2019. Antibiotic pollution in surface fresh waters: occurrence and effects. Science of the Total Environment. 664: 793-804.
10.Dwight, R.H., Baker, D.B., Semenza, J.C., and Olson, B.H. 2004. Health effects associated with recreational coastal water use: urban versus rural California. American J. of Public Health. 94: 4. 565-567.
11.Ebomah, K.E., Adefisoye, M.A., and Okoh, A.I. 2018. Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains recovered from selected aquatic resources in the eastern cape, South Africa, and its significance to public health. International J. of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15: 7. 1506.
, M.B., Ghorbanzadeh
, N., Amini
, M., and Ghovvati
, S. 2021. Investigation of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria in Zarjoub River. Iranian J. of Soil and Water Research. 52: 8. 2061-2076. (In Persian)
14.Feng, P., Weagant, S.D., Grant, M.A., Burkhardt, W., Shellfish, M., and Water, B. 2002. BAM: Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. 13p.
15.Haack, S.K., Fogarty, L.R., and Wright, C. 2003. Escherichia coli and Enterococci at beaches in the Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan: sources, characteristics, and environmental pathways. Environmental Science and Technology. 37: 15. 3275-3282.
16.Halliday, E., McLellan, S.L., Amaral-Zettler, L.A., Sogin, M.L., and Gast, R.J. 2014. Comparison of bacterial communities in sands and water at beaches with bacterial water quality violations. PLoS One. 9: 3. e90815.
17.Hartz, A., Cuvelier, M., Nowosielski, K., Bonilla, T., Green, M., Esiobu, N., McCorquodale, D., and Rogerson, A. 2008. Survival potential of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in subtropical beach sand: implications for water quality managers. J. of Environmental Quality. 37: 3. 898-905.
18.He, L.M., Lu, J., and Shi, W. 2007. Variability of fecal indicator bacteria in flowing and ponded waters in southern California: Implications for bacterial TMDL development and implementation. Water Research. 41: 14. 3132-3140.
19.Johannessen, G.S., Wennberg, A.C., Nesheim, I., and Tryland, I. 2015. Diverse land use and the impact on (irrigation) water quality and need for measures-A case study of a Norwegian river. International J. of Environmental Research and Public Health.12: 6. 6979-7001.
20.Karbasdehi, V.N., Dobaradaran, S., Nabipour, I., Ostovar, A., Arfaeinia, H., Vazirizadeh, A., Mirahmadi, R., Keshtkar, M., Ghasemi, F.F., and Khalifei, F. 2017. Indicator bacteria community in seawater and coastal sediment: the Persian Gulf as a case. J. of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 15: 1. 1-15.
21.Khosropanah, N., Nejatkhah-Manavi, P., Koohilay, S., and Taghi Naseri, M. 2011. Variations in nitrate and phosphate contents of waters in the Southwest Caspian Sea. J. of the Persian Gulf. 2: 5. 27-34.
22.Levy, S.B., and Marshall, B. 2004. Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nature Medicine. 10: 12. 122-129.
23.Magiorakos, A.P., Srinivasan, A., Carey, R., Carmeli, Y., Falagas, M., Giske, C., Harbarth, S., Hindler, J., Kahlmeter, G., and Olsson-Liljequist, B. 2012. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 18: 3. 268-281.
24.Martinez, J.L. 2009. The role of natural environments in the evolution of resistance traits in pathogenic bacteria. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276: 1667. 2521-2530.
25.Mohammadi Galangash, M., Movahedinia, A., and Bozorgpanah Kharat, Z. 2018. A study on some microbial indices and nutrient matters in the southern part of Caspian Sea; Guilan province. J. of Marine Science and Technology.16: 4. 66-76. (In Persian)
26.Naimi Jubani, I., Eslami, M., Saeedi, A., Keramati, A., and Javaherneshan, M. 2014. Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Water in Summer Caspian Shores in Guilan Province. J. of Guilan University of Medical Science. 22: 88. 67-72. (In Persian)
27.Neger, M.K. 2002. Literature Review on the Survival of Fecal Coliform in Fresh and Saline Waters, and Sediments. Lummi Indian Business Council, Funded By: Environment Protection Agency (Agreement No. GA-97020501-0).
28.Ortega, C., Solo-Gabriele, H.M., Abdelzaher, A., Wright, M., Deng, Y., and Stark, L.M. 2009. Correlations between microbial indicators, pathogens, and environmental factors in a subtropical estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58: 9. 1374-1381.
29.Overbey, K.N., Hatcher, S.M., and Stewart, J.R. 2015. Water quality and antibiotic resistance at beaches of the Galápagos Islands. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 3: 64.
30.Pansu, M., and Gautheyrou, J. 2007. Handbook of soil analysis: mineralogical, organic and inorganic methods. Springer Science & Business Media. 996p.
31.Papadakis, J., Mavridou, A., Richardson, S., Lampiri, M., and Marcelou, U. 1997. Bather-related microbial and yeast populations in sand and seawater. Water Research. 31: 4. 799-804.
32.Reinthaler, F., Posch, J., Feierl, G., Wüst, G., Haas, D., Ruckenbauer, G., Mascher, F., and Marth, E. 2003. Antibiotic resistance of E. coli in sewage and sludge. Water Research. 37: 8. 1685-1690.
33.Rizzo, L., Manaia, C., Merlin, C., Schwartz, T., Dagot, C., Ploy, M., Michael, I., and Fatta-Kassinos, D. 2013. Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes spread into the environment: a review. Science of the Total Environment. 447: 345-360.
34.Rumball, N.A., Mayer, H.C., and McLellan, S.L. 2020. Selective survival of Escherichia coli phylotypesin freshwater beach sand. Appliedand Environmental Microbiology.87: 4. 02473-20.
35.Saberinia, F., Farhangi, M.B., Yaghmaeian Mahabadi, N., and Ghorbanzadeh, N. 2021. Investigation of Gowharrood river contamination to antibiotic resistant bacteria. J. of Water and Wastewater; Ab va Fazilab.
31: 7. 145-161. (In Persian)
36.Shibata, T., Solo-Gabriele, H.M., Fleming, L.E., and Elmir, S. 2004. Monitoring marine recreational water quality using multiple microbial indicators in an urban tropical environment. Water Research.38: 13. 3119-3131.
37.Soller, J.A., Schoen, M.E., Bartrand, T., Ravenscroft, J.E., and Ashbolt, N.J. 2010. Estimated human health risks from exposure to recreational waters impacted by human and non-human sources of faecal contamination. Water Research. 44: 16. 4674-4691.
38.Statistical Center of Iran. 2016. National Tourist Survey Results Spring 2016, Statistical Center of Iran, Planning and Budget Organization, Presidency. Available at: https://www.amar.org.ir/ Portals/0/News/1396/gardesh%201-95. pdf (In Persian)
39.USEPA, U.S.E.P.A. 1986. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Bacteria. EPA 44015-84-002. Office of Regulations and Stand, Washington, DC. 395p.
40.Wayne, P. 2010. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: 20th informational supplement. CLSI document M100-S20.
41.Whitman, R.L., and Nevers, M.B. 2003. Foreshore sand as a source of Escherichia coli in nearshore waterof a Lake Michigan beach. Appliedand Environmental Microbiology.69: 9. 5555-5562.
42.WHO. 2003. Guidelines for safe recreational water environments: Coastal and fresh waters, Vol (1). World Health Organization. 219p.
43.Wise, R., Hart, T., Cars, O., Streulens, M., Helmuth, R., Huovinen, P., and Sprenger, M. 1998. Antimicrobial resistance. Is a major threat topublic health. British Medical J.317: 7159. 609-10.
44.Wisehart, G.D., Rempala, E.C., and Leboffe, M.J. 2012. A Photographic Atlas of Marine Biology. Morton Publishing Company. 320p.