عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and purpose: The formation of jumps in relaxation ponds plays an effective role in the depletion of flow energy at the bottom of aquatic structures. Hydraulic jump is a type of fast variable currents that changes from supercritical to subcritical mode if the channel conditions downstream are suitable. In this research, a new method has been proposed to reduce the conjugate depths and jump lengths, in which the characteristics of a fast free rectangular jet and floor roughness have been used to influence the jump characteristics. The fast jet hits the jump and the amount of motion transferred to it affects the jump characteristics and position.
Materials and Methods: In this study, a laboratory study was performed with a set of experiments in a channel with glass walls 10 meters long, 0.3 meters wide and 0.5 meters high. In order to investigate the effect of flow rate, jet angle, inverted slope and floor roughness at 2, 2.5 and 3.2 liters per second on the hydraulic jump profile of three flow rates, the angle with a maximum displacement of 90 degrees, 60 degrees per second for Jet and four angles were used for the horizontal direction of the jet, including the displacement of the beginning of the jump and the angle without changing the beginning of the jump and three types of roughness.
Results:The experimental results showed that for a given jet angle, at different discharges, the hydraulic jump has no displacement, which was named as the inert angle. With the increase of the jet angle, the jump moved upwards and from one angle onwards, the jump did not move upwards, which was also named as the maximum displacement angle of the jump. Changing the angle and flow rate of the jet reduced or increased the secondary depth, jump length, relative energy loss and shear force of the bed. The reverse slope and roughness reduced the hydraulic jump characteristics. At a slope of 2.25 and a distance of d and a jet angle of 3.2, the most changes were observed in the hydraulic jump characteristics.
Conclusion: Experimental results showed that by increasing the shear stress, it intensifies the effect of reverse slope and increases the roughness of the channel floor due to increasing shear stress, intensifies the effect of reverse slope on the length of the jump. In these changes, the effect of the downward component of the weight force on the reverse slope and the increase in shear stress on the rough bed can be considered as the main cause of the changes. Inserting the jet into the jump at an angle greater than the inert angle reduces the ratio of conjugate depths, jump lengths, and increases energy loss and floor shear forces.