تدوین جدول نیازهای رویشی خاک و زمین نما برای خرما به منظور استفاده در ارزیابی تناسب اراضی

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی موسسه تحقیقات خاک وآب

2 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب

3 پژوهشکده خرما و میوه های گرمسیری

4 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس

5 مرکزی تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی بوشهر

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: ایران از کشورهای مهم تولیدکننده خرما می‌باشد و نه‌تنها دارای سابقه طولانی از این نظر است بلکه در حال حاضر نیز از لحاظ تولید خرما، رتبه دوم را در جهان به خود اختصاص داده است. بنابراین، کشت و تولید خرما در ایران هم از نظر ملّی و هم برای ساکنان استان‌های تولیدکننده، دارای اهمیت ویژه‌ای است. لذا برنامه‌ریزی برای استفاده بهینه از منابع تولید مانند خاک و اراضی برای توسعه نخیلات در کشور نیز جایگاه ویژه‌‌ای می‌یابد. در این راستا ارزیابی تناسب اراضی و به-کارگرفتن اراضی به تناسب پتانسیل و ظرفیتشان برای کاربری خاص، چاره این مهم به‌نظر می‌رسد. لیکن یکی از ضروریات ارزیابی تناسب اراضی، تعیین نیازهای رویشی گیاهان از جمله وضعیت خاک به‌عنوان بستر تولید است. هدف از انجام این مطالعه، بررسی تأثیر خصوصیات خاک بر عملکرد خرما و درجه‌بندی آن‌ها برای انجام مطالعات تناسب اراضی بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: نخست 91 نخلستان با تنوع خاک و عملکرد در استان‌های کرمان، فارس، خوزستان، هرمزگان و بوشهر انتخاب و در هر باغ، یک پروفیل خاک مطالعه شده و پرسش‌نامه‌ کاربری اراضی تکمیل گردید. در نمونه‌های خاک جمع-آوری شده، آزمایش‌های فیزیکو-شیمیایی و حاصلخیزی مورد نیاز انجام شد. رگرسیون چندمتغیره بین عملکرد به عنوان متغیر وابسته و متغیرهای مستقل شامل شوری، درصد سدیم تبادلی، pH، گچ، آهک، رس، شن، سیلت، سنگریزه، پتاسیم و فسفر قابل جذب به روش گام به گام، بررسی گردید. سپس با بررسی روابط رگرسیون ساده بین ویژگی‌های اراضی مهم و موثر با عملکرد، معادلات و نمودارهای مربوطه ترسیم و درجه‌بندی خصوصیات اراضی انجام شد. جدول نیاز رویشی پیشنهادی با داده‌های خاک و عملکرد 20 باغ ارزیابی و صحت‌سنجی شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که پتاسیم، درصد شن، شوری خاک، درصد سدیم تبادلی و آهک، بیشترین، و pH و کربن آلی خاک، کمترین دامنه تغییرات را دارند. حداکثر مقدار آهک و گچ به ترتیب 74 و 17 درصد و بافت خاک از شنی تا رسی متغیر بود. نتایج رگرسیونی نشان داد به ترتیب متغیرهای مستقل شوری خاک، درصد سدیم تبادلی، آهک، گچ، سنگریزه، پتاسیم و فسفر قابل جذب، بر عملکرد موثر هستند. ضریب تبیین رگرسیون چند متغیره نشان داد که متغیرهای وارد شده به مدل توانسته‌اند 79 درصد از واریانس مربوط به متغیر وابسته را تعیین نمایند. در معادلات رگرسیون ساده، شوری خاک، درصد سدیم تبادلی، گچ، آهک و سنگریزه، اثر کاهشی و کربن آلی، فسفر و پتاسیم قابل جذب، اثر افزایشی بر عملکرد داشتند. بیشترین سهم در کاهش عملکرد خرما مربوط به شوری خاک، سنگریزه، درصد سدیم تبادلی و آهک بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: ضریب تبیین بین عملکرد و شاخص خاک بدست آمده از جدول نیاز خاک و اراضی پیشنهادی برای خرما، 0.79 گردید که نشان‌دهنده دقت قابل‌قبول جدول ارائه شده است. حد مجاز شوری خاک، درصد سدیم تبادلی، گچ و آهک برای نخل خرما به‌ترتیب 8 دسی زیمنس بر متر، 12، 8 و 38 درصد به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Preparation of soil and landscape requirements table for Date palm to use in land suitability evaluation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Zeinadini 1
  • Seyed alireza Seyedjalali 2
  • Mirnaser Navidi 2
  • Mahnaz Eskandari 2
  • Javad Seyedmohammadi 2
  • Hojat Dialami 3
  • Aboalhasan Moghimi 4
  • Morteza Pozesh Shirazi 5
1 Soil and Water Research Institute
2 Soil and Water Research Institute
3 -
4 -
5 -
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Iran is one of the major date-producing countries and not only has a long history in this field, but also it currently has the second grade of Date production in the world. Therefore, the cultivation and production of Dates in Iran is of particular importance both nationally and for the inhabitants of the producing provinces. In this regard, planning for optimal utilization of production resources such as soil and lands for development of the yield in the country has a special place. Consequently, evaluation of land suitability and utilization of lands in proportion to their potential and capacity for specific land use seems an important solution. However, one of the necessities of land suitability assessment is to determine the crop requirements of the plants such as the status of the soil as a production bed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil characteristics on Date yield and their rating for use in land suitability evaluation studies.
Materials and methods: First, 91 palm Date orchards were selected with diversity of soil and yield in Kerman, Fars, Khuzestan, Hormozgan and Bushehr provinces, in each garden, a soil profile was studied and a land use questionnaire completed. Physicochemical and fertility analyses were carried out on the collected soil samples. Multivariate regression was investigated between yield as dependent variable and independent variables including salinity, percentage of exchangeable sodium, pH, gypsum, calcium carbonate equivalent, clay, sand, silt, gravel, available potassium and phosphorus by stepwise method. Then, by checking the relations of simple regression between the important and effective characteristics with yield, related equations and diagrams were drawn and the rating of land characteristics set. The proposed crop requirement table was evaluated and validated using soil and yield data of 20 orchards.
Results: Results showed that potassium, sand percentage, soil salinity, ESP and CaCO3 had the highest and soil organic carbon content and pH had the least variation. Maximum amount of lime and gypsum was 74 and 17% and soil texture varied from sandy to clay, respectively. Regression results showed that independent variables including soil salinity, ESP, CaCO3, gypsum, gravel, available potassium and phosphorus were effective on yield, respectively. The determination coefficient of multivariate regression indicated that the variables entered into the model can determine 79% of the variance related to the dependent variable. In simple regression equations, soil salinity, ESP, gypsum, CaCO3 and gravel had a decreasing effect and organic carbon, available phosphorus and potassium had increasing effect on yield. The highest contribution to the decline in Date yields was related to soil salinity, gravel, ESP and calcium carbonate.
Conclusion: The coefficient of determination between yield and soil index obtained from the proposed soil and landscape requirements table for the Date was about 0.79 which showed acceptable accuracy of the prepared table. Soil salinity, ESP, gypsum and calcium carbonate limit for Date palm were determined 8 dS/m, 12, 8 and 38 percent, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • date palm
  • land suitability
  • Crop requirements
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