الگوی رفتاری حفاظت از خاک‌های زراعی (مطالعه موردی: گندمکاران شهرستان مرودشت)

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانشگاه شیراز/ دانشکده کشاورزی

3 دانشگاه شیراز

4 دانشکده کشاورزی شیراز، بخش ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: با توجه به اهمیت راهبردی منابع خاک در بستر تغییرات جهانی، محافظت از آن، اولویت افزایش امنیت غذایی و اتخاذ سیاست‏های زیست‌محیطی است. اقدامات حفاظتی به منظور حفظ منابع از جمله خاک در ابتدا تنها به مسائل "فنی" و "فناورانه" نسبت داده می‏شد اما طی چند دهه اخیر ابعاد "اجتماعی" و "فردی" این منابع مورد تاکید قرار گرفته است. این امر اثبات شده است که انسان با رفتارهایی که در قبال محیط‌زیست انجام می‏دهد، می‏تواند سبب تخریب و تهدید محیط‌زیست شود. از این رو این مقاله به بررسی رفتار حفاظت خاک گندمکاران پرداخته و نیز یک الگوی رفتاری که منجر به اقدامات آنان نسبت به خاک می ‌شود، را ارائه می‌نماید. نوآوری تحقیق حاضر این است که با وجود مطالعات بسیار در حوزه حفاظت خاک یک موضوع مهم در اغلب این پژوهش‌ها نادیده گرفته شده‌اند، در این مطالعات یا به الگوهای رفتاری انسانی توجه نشده و یا اینکه به‌طور ناقص و غیرجامعی به آنها پرداخته شده است. در نتیجه در این مقاله با در نظرگرفتن این جنبه مهم، استخراج الگوی مناسب رفتاری زارعان در حفاظت از خاک‌های زراعی هدف اصلی می‌باشد. وجه تمایز دیگر این پژوهش استفاده از روش پدیدارشناسی است که کمتر در این نوع مطالعات مورد استفاده قرار گرفته‌است. ﭘﺪﯾﺪار ﺷﻨﺎﺳﯽ، اﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ زﯾﺴﺘﻪ ﯾﺎ ﺟﻬﺎن زﻧﺪﮔﯽ اﺳﺖ که ﺑﺮ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴﺎت ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ دارد و درک ﻣﺎ را از ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴﺎت زﻧﺪﮔﻲ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ. در نتیجه‌یافته‌های حاصل از این نوع پژوهش مستقیما تجربه زیسته فرد است و بنابراین دارای خطای کمتری است.
مواد و روش‌‌ها: برای دستیابی به این هدف از روش پدیدارشناسی استفاده گردید. ابزار جمع‌آوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه باز و شیوه تکمیل این پرسشنامه مصاحبه عمیق بود. با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و با استفاده از فن نمونه‌گیری گلوله برفی، 28 نفر از گندمکاران انتخاب شدند، بدین‌صورت که هر یک از کشاورزان، سوژه بعدی تحقیق را که در شرایط مشابهی با آن-ها قرار داشت، معرفی نمودند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد، مهم‌ترین مفاهیم درک شده از عوامل موثر بر بروز رفتار محیط‌زیست‌گرایانه حفاظت خاک توسط کشاورزان مورد مطالعه عبارتند از: نداشتن توجیه اقتصادی فعالیت حفاظت خاک، ایجاد تضاد، نوع کشت، کاهش مقدار برداشت محصول، اشتغال جانبی، کاهش هزینه خوراک دام، بخت و اقبال، مواجهه با مسائل قانونی، اجتناب از آتش زدن بقایای گیاهی، کاهش سطح زیر کشت، کاهش کیفیت محصول، کاهش علاقه و انگیزه نسبت به کشاورزی، و احساس فریب خوردگی است. از طرفی تنها رفتار حفاظتی کشاورزان در برخورد با خاک، اجتناب از آتش زدن بقایای گیاهی است و بیشتر رفتارهای روی داده از سوی کشاورزان جنبه تخریبی دارد و مهم‌ترین زمینه‌های تخریبی عبارتند از عدم تغییر شیوه خاک‌ورزی، زیر خاک کردن زباله‌های پلاستیکی، عدم تصفیه آب، رها کردن بسته‌بندی‌های نهاده‌های کشاورزی در زمین، عدم انجام آزمون خاک، مصرف بیش از حد کودها و سموم شیمیایی و عدم رعایت تناوب زراعی.
نتیجه‌گیری: به طور کلی یافته‌های حاصل از پدیدارشناسی نشان داد که کشاورزان مورد مطالعه از تجارب ضعیفی در زمینه حفاظت خاک برخوردارند، باورهایشان در زمینه حفاظت خاک غیرمنطقی است و حتی تعریف قابل قبولی از حفاظت خاک ندارند که این موجب شده است که رفتار درستی از خود بروز ندهند. همچنین اگر پیش‌بینی (انتظارات) ناقصی از وضعیت آینده خاک داشته باشند نمی‌توانند یا تمایلی ندارند که رفتار صحیحی از خود بروز دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Behavioral Model of Crop Soil Conservation (Case Study: Wheat Growers in Marvdasht Township)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khadijeh Bazrafkan 1
  • Gholam Hossein Zamani 2
  • Kurosh Rezae-Moghaddam 3
  • Razieh Namdar 4
1 shiraz university
2 shiraz university
3 Shiraz University
4 shiraz university
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Given the strategic importance of soil resources in the context of global changes, protecting them is a top priority for increasing food security and adopting environmental policies. Conservation activities to protect resources, such as soil, were initially attributed to "technical" and "technological" issues, however in recent decades the "social" and "individual" dimensions of these resources have been emphasized. It has been proven that humans with their behaviors towards the environment can destroy and threaten the environment. Therefore, this article examines the soil protection behavior of wheat growers and also presents a behavioral model that leads to their conservation actions toward the soil. The innovation of the present study is that despite many studies in the field of soil protection, one important issues in most of these studies have been ignored; in these studies human behavioral models have been neglected or they have been addressed incompletely and insufficiently. As a result, in this paper, considering this important aspects, the main goal is to extract a suitable pattern of protective behavior of farmers towards arable soils. Another distinguishing feature of this research is the use of phenomenology method which are less commonly has been used in these types of studies. Phenomenology is essentially the study of live experience or the world of life. It emphasizes the depth of experience and increases our understanding of life experiences. As a result, the findings of this type of research has directly related to one's lived experience and so it has fewer errors.
Materials and Methods: For this purpose, phenomenology research method was used. The data collection tool was an open-ended questionnaire and the method of completing this questionnaire was an in-depth interview. Using purposeful sampling and through snowball sampling technique, 28 wheat growers were selected, so that each of the farmers introduced the next research subject who was in a similar situation to them.
Results: The results showed that the most important concepts perceived by studied farmers in effective factors of their environmental conservation behaviors were: lack of economic justification of soil conservation activity, contradiction, crop type, reduce the amount of crop harvested, lateral employment, cost reduction of livestock feed, fortune and destiny, facing legal issues, avoiding to burn plant residues, lowering crop yields, decrease in crop quality, loss of interest and motivation towards agriculture and the feeling of being deceived. On the other hand, the only protective behavior of farmers towards soil is avoiding to burn plant residues and most of the experienced behaviors by farmers are destructive and the most important destructive areas include not changing the way of tillage, dumping of plastic wastes, lack of water refinery, abandonment of agricultural inputs packages on the farmland, not doing the soil test, overuse of fertilizers and pesticides and lack of crop rotation.
Conclusion: The findings showed that studied farmers did not have good soil conservation experiences, their beliefs were incorrect and did not even have a proper definition of soil conservation, which caused them to not behave properly. Also, if they have weak forecasting of the future soil situation, they couldn’t or have no willingness to reveal their proper behavior.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tillage
  • Agriculture
  • Phenomenology
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