بررسی تغییرات هدررفت خاک با استفاده از کود مرغی در بازه های زمانی مختلف

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گره مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

3 گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی ساری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

4 عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع ساری

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: ﺧﺎک ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻣﻮاد ﻏﺬاﯾﯽ بوده، اما همواره ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ ﺗﺨﺮﯾﺐ ﻗﺮار داشته، ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﯾﻦ کاهش هدررفت خاک دارای اهمیت زیادی است. با وجود انجام پژوهش‌های متعدد در زمینه جلوگیری از هدررفت خاک درک ﮐﺎﻣﻞ اﯾﻦ ﭘﺪﯾده و کاهش آن راﻫ‌ﯽ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﯽ در ﭘﯿﺶ دارد. بررسی‌ها نشان داده است که امروزه مواد افزودنی متنوعی با هدف حفاظت آب و خاک در سرتاسر جهان مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد. افزودنی‌های آلی موادی هستند که می‌توانند باعث افزایش نفوذپذیری و کاهش رواناب و هدررفت خاک شوند. تولید رواناب و رسوب تحت تأثیر تغییرات مکانی ویژگی‌های خاک تغییر می‌یابند و هم‌چنین قابلیت خاک در تولید رواناب و رسوب در طی زمان ثابت نیست. بنابراین، نوآوری پژوهش حاضر، بررسی اثر کود مرغی در فرآیند حفاظت آب و خاک بر مولفه‌های زمان شروع رواناب، ضریب رواناب، هدررفت خاک و غلظت رسوب در دوره‌های زمانی 24 ساعت، سه، شش، نه و 12 ماه می‌باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: در پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور اندازه‌گیری مقدار رواناب و هدررفت خاک از 28 کرت در شرایط آزمایشگاهی با استفاده از تیمار کود مرغی هوا خشک‌شده استفاده شد. کود مرغی با دو مقدار پنج و 10 تن بر هکتار به‌کار برده شد که مستقیماً در سطح خاک به‌صورت یکنواخت و با دست پخش گردید. پس از آن آزمایش‌ها در تیمار شاهد (قبل از کاربرد کود مرغی) و تیمارهای حفاظت شده (بعد از کاربرد کود مرغی) با سه تکرار انجام گردید. آزمایش‌ها در کرت‌های شاهد و کرت‌های حفاظت شده با استفاده از شبیه‌ساز باران برای شدت بارندگی 50 میلی‌متر در ساعت و در شیب 20 درصد جهت جمع‌آوری رواناب و رسوب شبیه‌سازی شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که کود مرغی با دو مقدار پنج و 10 تن بر هکتار در بازه‌های زمانی مورد مطالعه باعث افزایش زمان شروع رواناب و کاهش ضریب رواناب، هدررفت خاک و غلظت رسوب شد. تیمار کود مرغی 10 تن برهکتار در بازه زمانی 12 ماه بیش‌ترین تاثیر را بر افزایش زمان شروع رواناب با مقدار 6/19+ درصد، هم‌چنین بیش‌ترین میزان کاهش در ضریب رواناب و هدررفت خاک به-ترتیب با مقادیر 11/14- و 00/19- درصد را داشت. در حالی‌که تیمار کود مرغی با مقدار پنج تن بر هکتار در بازه زمانی 24 ساعت بیش‌ترین میزان کاهش در غلظت رسوب با مقدار 93/9- درصد را ارائه نمود. نتایج هم‌چنین نشان داد که اثر جداگانه کود مرغی بر زمان شروع رواناب و هدررفت خاک در سطح 99 درصد و بر ضریب رواناب در سطح 95 درصد معنی‌دار بود. هم‌چنین اثر جداگانه بازه زمانی بر زمان شروع رواناب در سطح 99 درصد معنی‌دار و بر ضریب رواناب، هدررفت خاک و غلظت رسوب غیر‌معنی‌دار بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: افزودنی‌های آلی می‌توانند موجب کاهش رواناب و هدررفت خاک شوند. با این وجود، نقش مواد اصلاحی آلی قابل دسترس و دوستدار محیط زیست کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. هم‌چنین استفاده از کودهای آلی به‌عنوان یکی از مطلوب‌ترین انواع روش‌ها در کاهش هزینه‌های استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی و نیز اثرات مخرب آنها بر خاک و محیط‌زیست می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changes Study of Soil Loss using Poultry Manure in Various Time Periods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behzad Zarei 1
  • Leila Gholami 2
  • Ataollah Kavian 3
  • Kaka Shahedi 4
1 Master Graduated, Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
2 Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Collage of Natural Resources, Sari of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran.
3 Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Collage of Natural Resources, Sari of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
4 Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
چکیده [English]

Backgrounds and objectives: Soil is the main factor in food production, but it has always been under the destruction influence, therefore the reduction of soil loss is more important. In spite of numerous studies in prevention field of soil loss, the full understanding of this phenomenon and its reduction has a long way to come. Studies showed that today the various conditioners are used with aim of water and soil conservation in worldwide. Organic conditioners are the materials that these can cause the increasing infiltration and decreasing runoff and soil loss. Runoff and sediment yield is affected by spatial changes of soil properties and soil ability in runoff and sediment yield are not constant over time.
Therefore, the innovation of present study conducted the study of poultry manure effect in process of soil and water conservation on parameters of time to runoff, runoff coefficient, soil loss and sediment concentration in time period of 24 h, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.
Materials and Methods: In present study for measuring the runoff and soil loss amount used from 28 plots using dried-air poultry manure in laboratory conditions. The poultry manure applied with two amounts of 5 and 10 t ha-1 that this was directly distributed with hand on surface soil. Then, the experiments was conducted in control treatment (before application of poultry manure) and conservation treatments (after application of poultry manure) with three replications. The experiments simulated in control plots and conservation plots using rainfall simulator for rainfall intensity of 50 mm h-1 and slope of 20 percent for collection of runoff and sediment.
Results: The results showed that the poultry manure with two amounts of 5 and 10 t ha-1 in time periods caused the increasing time to runoff and decreasing runoff coefficient, soil loss and sediment concentration. The poultry manure of 10 10 t ha-1 and time period of 12 month had more effect on increasing time to runoff with rate of +19.6 percent, also the most decrease amount in runoff coefficient and soil loss with rates of -14.11 and -19.00 percent, respectively. While, the treatment of poultry manure with rate of 5 t ha-1 in time period of 24 h presented the most decrease in soil concentration with rate of -9.93 percent. The results also showed that the separate effect of poultry manure on time to runoff and soil loss was significant in level of 95 percent. Also, the separate effect of time period on time to runoff was significant in level of 99 percent and on runoff coefficient, soil loss and sediment concentration was not significant.
Conclusion: Organic conditioners can cause the reduction of runoff and soil loss. However, the material role of organic amendment of accessible and environmentally friendly less has been attention. Also, use from organic manure is one of the most desirable methods in reducing use costs from chemical manure and also these destructive effects on soil and environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Erosion Plots
  • Organic Manure
  • Soil amendments
  • Soil erosion
  • Soil stability
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