بررسی آلودگی هیدروکربن‌های نفتی و فلزات سنگین در خاک‌های پنج پالایشگاه نفت کشور

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 استاد یار

چکیده

سابقه و هدف : تغییر در الگوی کاربری اراضی از طریق روند صنعتی شدن، توسعه زیرساخت‌ها و توسعه کشاورزی باعث آلودگی محیط زیست از جمله خاک شده است امروزه آلودگی خاک با فلزات سنگین یک مشکل جدی و در حال گسترش است. فلزات سنگین با ورود به زنجیره غذایی سلامت اکوسیستم‌ها و انسان را تهدید می‌کنند. این مطالعه به منظور بررسی و پایش آلودگی خاک پنج پالایشگاه کشورمی‌باشد. طی این پژوهش وضعیت آلودگی خاک‌های مناطق مورد مطالعه از نظر آلاینده‌های مختلف شامل فلزات سنگین و کل هیدروکربن‌های نفتی (TPHs) بررسی می‌گردد.
مواد و روش: در این مطالعه خاک‌های آلوده به مواد نفتی از پنج پالایشگاه آبادان، اصفهان، تبریز، تهران و شیراز از نظر خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. غلظت کل هیدروکربن‌های نفتی (TPHs) ، تنفس میکربی و فلزات سنگین شامل کادمیوم، کروم، سرب و نیکل در نمونه‌های خاک اندازه‌گیری واز نظر آماری مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.
یافته ها : میانگین مقدار TPHs در خاک‌های آبادان، اصفهان، تبریز، تهران و شیراز به ترتیب 46، 138، 115، 12 و 154 درصد وزنی بود که با کربن آلی نمونه‌ها همبستگی مثبت داشت (05/0pنتیجه گیری: پالایشگاه تهران نسبت به پالایشگاه‌های دیگر از نظر آلودگی به فلزات سنگین و هیدروکربن های نفتی در وضعیت بهتری قرار دارد که این امر ممکن است به دلیل اجرای برنامه زیست محیطی در این پالایشگاه باشد. با توجه به آلودگی خاک پالایشگاه‌های کشور، پایش و پاکسازی خاک باید در برنامه‌های زیست‌محیطی مراکز صنعتی مذکور مورد توجه قرار گیرد. همچنین پیشنهاد می‌شودامکان استفاده از برنامه‌های پالایش خاک از جمله زیست پالایی در این مناطق مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Contamination by Petroleum hydrocarbons and Heavy metals in Soils of Five Oil Refineries

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra alipour asadabadi 1
  • mansoreh malekian 2
  • mohsen soleimani 2
1 دانشجو
چکیده [English]

Background and Objective: Changes in the pattern of land use through the process of industrialization, infrastructure development and agricultural development is causing environmental issues such as soil pollution. The soil contamination with heavy metals is a serious and expanding problem. Heavy metals entering the food chain, threaten ecosystem and human health. This study aimed to assess and monitor soil contaminants including heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soils of five oil refineries.
Materials and Method: In the current study oil- contaminated soils from five refineries including Abadan, Isfahan, Tabriz, Tehran and Shiraz were collected and physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soils examined. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) in soil samples were measured and the data was ststistically analysed.
Result: TPH levels in contaminated soils of Abadan, Isfahan, Tabriz, Tehran and Shiraz were 6.4 , 13.8 , 11.5 , 2.1 and 15.4 percent respectively and positively correlated with organic carbon of soil amples. The values obtained here were higher than the national and international standards. The highest concentration of chromium (mg/kg) was recorded in Abadan (83.3), Tehran (212) and Shiraz (61.1) refineries. The highest concentrations of nickel (mg/kg) were obtained from Tabriz (76.3) and Isfahan (122.1) respectively. The amount of cadmium and nickel in soil was higher than the standards of Europe and the world. A significant negative correlation was observed between heavy metal and hydrocarbon concentrations and microbial respiration, suggesting negative effects of pollutants on soil microorganisms which may also affect plants and other organisms.
Conclusion: In terms of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, Tehran Refinery is in a better situation compared to other refineries, and this might be due to an environmental action plan running in this refinery. Given the contamination of refineries` soil, it is recommended that environmental monitoring and industrial cleaning is taken into consideration . It is also recommended to use filtering programs, including bioremediation of soil in these areas.
Result: TPH levels in contaminated soils of Abadan, Isfahan, Tabriz, Tehran and Shiraz were 6.4 , 13.8 , 11.5 , 2.1 and 15.4 percent respectively and positively correlated with organic carbon of soil amples. The values obtained here were higher than the national and international standards. The highest concentration of chromium (mg/kg) was recorded in Abadan (83.3), Tehran (212) and Shiraz (61.1) refineries. The highest concentrations of nickel (mg/kg) were obtained from Tabriz (76.3) and Isfahan (122.1) respectively. The amount of cadmium and nickel in soil was higher than the standards of Europe and the world. A significant negative correlation was observed between heavy metal and hydrocarbon concentrations and microbial respiration, suggesting negative effects of pollutants on soil microorganisms which may also affect plants and other organisms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • Soil pollution
  • Oil refineries
  • Microbial respiration
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