ارتباط شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم با ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک‌های آهکی جنوب شرقی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد

2 استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه یاسوج

3 گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه یاسوج

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: پتاسیم در شکل‌های مختلف در خاک وجود دارد. رفتار پتاسیم قابل استفاده در خاک، به دلیل تعامل آن با ویژگی‌های ذاتی خاک، دشوار است. اگر چه بیشتر خاک‌ها حاوی مقادیر زیادی پتاسیم هستند، اما اغلب خاک‌ها قادر به تامین مقادیر مناسب آن برای تغذیه گیاهان نیستند تا واکنش‌های تعادلی که بین شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم رخ می‌دهد تاثیر عمیقی بر تغذیه پتاسیم داشته باشند. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی ارتباط شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم (محلول، تبادلی، غیرتبادلی و ساختمانی) با ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک‌های مناطق مرکبات‌کاری شهرستان‌های ایرانشهر و خاش در استان سیستان و بلوچستان انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: ابتدا بر اساس مطالعات قبلی، 30 نمونه از خاک‌های شهرستان‌های ایرانشهر و خاش با ویژگی‌های متفاوت مشخص گردید. سپس از عمق صفر تا 30 سانتی‌متری خاک‌ها نمونه‌برداری انجام شد. ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک و شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم (محلول، تبادلی، غیرتبادلی و ساختمانی) به همراه پتاسیم کل اندازه‌گیری و ارتباط شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم با یکدیگر و ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک بررسی شد.
یافته‌ها: خاک‌های مورد مطالعه دارای بافت سبک، غیر شور و آهکی بودند. مقادیر کربن آلی در خاک‌ها در دامنه‌ی 6/0 تا 6/1 درصد، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی در دامنه‌ی 1/7 تا 5/10 سانتی‌مول بار در کیلوگرم و pH در دامنه‌ی 0/7 تا 4/7 متغیر بودند. مقادیر شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم در شهرستان ایرانشهر، پتاسیم محلول از 4/1 تا 4/20، تبادلی از 122 تا 315، غیرتبادلی از 177 تا 388، ساختمانی از 5709 تا 13987 و کل از 8420 تا 14200 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم خاک متغیر بود. در شهرستان خاش مقادیر پتاسیم محلول از 7/5 تا 3/14، تبادلی از 129 تا 273، غیرتبادلی از 293 تا 439، ساختمانی از 5412 تا 14085 و پتاسیم کل از 9892 تا 13850 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم قرار داشت. آزمون همبستگی نشان داد پتاسیم محلول با شن همبستگی مثبت معنا‌دار (r=0.5*) و با سیلت همبستگی منفی معنا‌دار (r=-0.5*) داشت. بین پتاسیم تبادلی با کربن آلی همبستگی مثبت معنا‌دار (r=0.7*)، با رس همبستگی مثبت معنا‌دار (r=0.5*) و با ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی همبستگی مثبت معنا‌دار (r=0.7*) به‌دست آمد. بین پتاسیم غیرتبادلی با کربنات کلسیم معادل همبستگی منفی معنا‌دار (r=-0.8*) بدست آمد. بین شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم همبستگی مثبت و معنا‌دار وجود داشت که نشان دهنده برقرای تعادل سریع بین این شکل‌های پتاسیم است.
نتیجه‌گیری: مقدار پتاسیم قابل دسترس گیاه (پتاسیم محلول، تبادلی، غیرتبادلی) در مناطق مرکبات‌کاری در استان سیستان و بلوچستان در شهرستان‌های ایرانشهر و خاش خوب بوده در نتیجه نیاز به کود پتاسیم در این دو منطقه نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between different forms of potassium with physical and chemical properties calcareous soils of southeast of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Asghar Irandgani 1
  • Mohamad Rahmanian 2
  • Hamidreza Owliaie 3
1 M.Sc. student
2 Yasouj University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Potassium occurs in soils in various forms. The behavior of potassium in soil can be difficult due to its interaction with the intrinsic properties of the soil. Although most soils contain large quantities of potassium, but most soils are not able to provide proper amounts for plant nutrition, so that the equilibrium reactions occurring between different forms of potassium have a profound effect on potassium nutrition. This research was carried out with the aim of investigating the relationship between different forms of potassium (soluble, exchangeable, non- exchangeable and construction) with physical and chemical properties of soils in citrus areas of Iranshahr and Khash towns in Sistan and Baluchestan province.
Materials and Methods: First, according to previous studies, 30 samples of soils in Iranshahr and Khash towns with different characteristics. Then samplings were taken from depths of 0 to 30 cm. Physical and chemical properties of soil and various forms of potassium (soluble, exchangeable, non- exchangeable and construction) with total potassium were measured and relationship between different forms of potassium with each other and physical and chemical properties of soil were investigated.
Results: Soils were in general light in texture, non-saline and calcareous. Organic carbon values in soils ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 percent, cation exchange capacity ranged from 7.0 to 10.5 centimoles per kilogram, and the pH ranged from 7.0 to 7.4. The amounts of different forms of potassium in the city of Iranshahr, potassium soluble ranged from 1.4 to 20.4, exchangeable from 122 to 315, non- exchangeable from 177 to 388, construction from 5709 to 13987 and a total 8420 to 14200 mg kg-1 soil. In Khash city, potassium soluble ranged from 5.7 to 14.3, exchangeable from 129 to 273, non- exchangeable from 293 to 493, construction from 5412 to 14085 and a total 9892 to 13850 mg kg-1 soil. Correlation test showed that there was a significant positive correlation between soluble potassium and sand (r= 0.5*) and negative correlation with silt (r= -0.5*). There was a significant positive correlation between exchangeable potassium and organic matter (r= 0.7*), significant positive correlation with clay (r= 0.5*) and significant positive correlation with cation exchange capacity (r= 0.7*). Between non- exchangeable potassium and calcium carbonate there was a significant negative correlation (r= -0.8*). Significant positive relationships among various fractions of soil K indicated existence of a dynamic equilibrium between different forms of K.
Conclusion: The amount of potassium available in the plant (soluble, exchangeable, non- exchangeable potassium) is good in citrus growing areas in Sistan and Balouchestan province of Iranshahr and Khash, and therefore does not require potassium fertilizers in these two regions

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Potassium forms
  • Soil physical and chemical properties
  • Citrus
  • Sistan and Balouchestan province
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