تاثیر تغییر کاربری اراضی بر خصوصیات فیزیکی ، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک در جنگل قلک شهرستان قائمشهر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کیلومتر 10 جاده ساری- نکا، دانشکده منابع طبیعی

2 کیلومتر 10 جاده ساری -نکا، دانشکده منابع طبیعی

3 کیلومتر 10 جاده ساری - نکا، دانشکده منابع طبیعی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: تخریب اکوسیستم‌های طبیعی و تبدیل آن ها به کاربر ی های دیگر موجب تغییرات چشمگیری در خصوصیات خاک شده است .جنگل‌زدایی عواقب اکولوژیکی زیان‌باری مانند کاهش تنوع زیستی و کیفیت خاک را بهمراه دارد. نتایج پژوهش‌ها در سراسر دنیا بیانگر آن است که جنگل‌زدایی باعث تنزل کیفیت خاک از طریق کاهش ماده آلی، تنفس میکروبی، پایداری خاکدانه‌ها، هدایت هیدرولیکی و افزایش جرم مخصوص ظاهری می‌گردد. هدف از این پژوهش ارزیابی تغییرات برخی مشخصه های حاصلخیزی خاک تحت تاثیر پوشش های مختلف زمین در استان مازندران، شهرستان قائمشهر بوده است.
مواد و روش‌ها: به منظور انجام این پژوهش، 4 کاربری اراضی شامل ، جنگل طبیعی، جنگل تفرجی، شالیزار، و باغ مرکبات در نظر گرفته شد. برای نمونه‌برداری از خاک در هر کاربری از 10 قطعه نمونه با ابعاد (20×20متر) بصورت تصادفی منظم (75×50متر)استفاده گردید. سپس نمونه‌های خاک در مرکز هر پلات واز عمق 10-0سانتی‌متری بوسیله استوانه فلزی (قطر 8 سانتی‌متر) برداشت گردید. درصد رطوبت، بافت خاک، وزن مخصوص ظاهری، واکنش خاک، هدایت الکتریکی، کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل، پتاسیم، فسفر، آمونیوم و نیترات خاک در آزمایشگاه اندازه گیری و شاخص های نرخ خالص معدنی شدن نیتروژن، تولید خالص آمونیوم و نیترات محاسبه گردید. برای بررسی تفاوت معنی داری بین کاربری های مختلف زمین از آنالیز واریانس یک طرفه و همچنین بمنظور مقایسه میانگین پارامترها از آزمون دانکن استفاده گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاکی از آن است که مشخصات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک در بین کاربری های مختلف دارای تفاوت معنی داری (05/0p<) با یکدیگر بوده اند. بطوریکه بیشترین میزان درصد رطوبت (47/36)، کربن آلی (1/5)، نیتروژن کل(46/0) و بیشترین غلظت نسبت کربن به نیتروژن (06/11) در جنگل تفرجی و کمترین میزان درصد کربن آلی (68/1)و پتاسیم (54/260) و نسبت کربن به نیتروزن (71/7) در کاربری شالیزار مشاهده گردید. کاهش ورودی مواد آلی به خاک به دلیل از بین رفتن پوشش طبیعی جنگل از سویی و تخریب خاکدانه‌ها به سبب عملیات خاکورزی و در نتیجه عدم حفاظت فیزیکی مواد آلی خاک سبب کاهش مقادیر کربن آلی و ازت کل خاک در این کاربری شده است. علی رغم عدم تفاوت معنی داری مشخصه آمونیوم خاک در بین کاربری های مختلف در دو سری زمانی (شهریور و مهر)، بیش ترین میزان این مشخصه در کاربری های جنگلی و کم ترین میزان آن در شالیزار و باغ مشاهده شده است. غلظت زیاد آمونیوم در دو پوشش جنگلی به نرخ بالای معدنی شدن ازت برمی‌گردد. افزایش نرخ معدنی شدن ازت و فعالیت میکروبی به شدت تحت تأثیر افزایش متغیرهایی از قبیل درجة حرارت، رطوبت خاک ،pH و منابع موقت کربن و ازت ( برای جوامع میکروبی) می باشد. همچنین نتایج حاکی از آن است که معدنی شدن خالص نیتروژن و تولید خالص نیترات نیز فقط در کاربری شالیزار و جنگل تفرجی رخ داده است.
نتیجه گیری: با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می توان گفت که پویایی نیتروژن می‌تواند تحت تاثیر تغییر کاربری های جنگلی قرار گیرد. بنابراین نیتروژن کل و اشکال معدنی آن می تواند بعنوان شاخص‌های کلیدی جهت ارزیابی اثرات مدیریت اراضی روی کیفیت خاک مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of different land use on physical, chemical and biological soil properties in the Qalek forest Qhaemshahr city

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nazanin Khatirpasha 1
  • mohammad hojjati 2
  • Mohammad Reza Pourmajidian 3
  • Maryam Asadiyan 1
1 Sari Agricultural and Natural Resources University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: The destruction of natural ecosystems and conversion to other land uses caused considerable changes in the soil properties. Deforestation leads to adverse ecological conditions including the reduction of biodiversity and soil quality. The results of several studies around the world indicated that deforestation can reduce soil quality by decreasing organic matter, microbial respiration, aggregate stability, hydraulic conductivity and increasing bulk density. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different land use on soil productivity characteristics in a part of Ghaemshahr, located in Mazandaran province.
Materials and Methods: To do the present investigation, four land uses were considered, included: Natural forest, recreation forest, paddy field and citrus field. The soil sampling was done by using 10 plots (20×20m) at each land use, which have been selected by randomly systematic method (50×75m). Then, soil samples were collected from the center of each plot at 0-10cm depth by using coring method (8cm diameter). The soil moisture, soil texture, bulk density, pH, EC, total N, available K and P, NO-3 and NH+4 concentration were measured by using conventional analysis methods in laboratory. Also, net N mineralization, net ammonification rate and net nitrification were calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan test were used in order to test significantly differences and comparing the mean of parameters among different land uses, respectively.
Results: Our results showed that there were considerable differences in physical, chemical and biological soil properties between different land uses. The higher amount of soil moisture (36/47), organic carbon (5/1), total nitrogen (0/46), C/N ratio were observed in recreation forest and the lower amount of organic carbon (1/68), potassium (260/54) and C/N (7/71) ratio were observed in rice field. The lower input of organic matter into the soil (due to the loss of natural forest cover), destruction of aggregates (because of the plow process) and the lack of physical protection of soil organic matter caused to decrease of amount of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in rice field. Ammonium-N concentration showed no significant difference between different sites for both sampling date (September and October), but the highest ammonium concentration was found in forest lands and its lowest concentration was observed in paddy field and citrus field. The higher ammonium concentrations may be related to higher rates of N mineralization in soil of both forest land uses (recreation forest and natural forest).Increasing temperature, water content, pH and labile sources of C and N (for microbial communities) can be lead to increase N mineralization rate and microbial activity. Also, results showed that net N mineralization and net nitrification were occurred just in the soil of paddy field and recreation forest.
Conclusion: According to our findings, N dynamics can be influenced by changing of forest land use. Thus, total N and its mineral forms can be used as the key indexes to evaluating the effects of land management on soil quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land use change
  • Net N mineralization
  • Recreation forest
  • Paddy field
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