An Overview of Amendments Used in Soil and Water Conservation in Iran

Document Type : Invited review paper


1 Corresponding Author, Professor, Dept. of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Graduate in Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.


Background and Objectives: Soil erosion is a kind of land degradation that is one of the world's environmental issues. One of the most common causes of land degradation is soil erosion. Various additives and amendments are being employed in order to safeguard the country's water and land. As a result, understanding diverse soil additives and their roles in the conservation of soil and water resources, as well as complete watershed management, is critical. As a result, the purpose of this study was to provide comprehensive information on the background and recent studies on the use of organic, inorganic, and biological soil additives, as well as to evaluate various effects and determine their performance and application in erosion control and soil and water conservation.
Materials and Methods: All studies and research on the application of amendments in soil and water conservation in different conditions on various components of soil erosion and conservation in Iran were documented in databases and extracted from journal articles, conferences, executive reports, and related research, and theses and dissertations were investigated. The relevant 75 documents were then chronologically evaluated, analyzed, and summarized in order to assess the usage of various amendments in many areas, including the kind of amendments, the scope of use, the experimental setting, and the research variables. The necessary conclusions were ultimately drawn qualitatively.
Results: The use of soil stabilizers and amendments such as organic, inorganic, and biological elements to enhance the erodibility threshold and prevent soil water erosion has been widely documented based on the findings of this study. According to research findings, the performance of amendments varied depending on the kind, manner of application, scale, and soil type. In addition, the findings on the usage of amendments revealed that various additions are used and work well in soil and water conservation. However, adopting any of the customary changes has been noted as a considerable difficulty due to economic, environmental, health, administrative, functional, and technical restrictions. The use of biologically and ecologically friendly alternatives to boost the efficiency of the conditions for balancing and stabilizing the soil environment has been stressed due to the aforementioned constraints for the use of amendments.
Conclusion: Because of the widespread use of amendments, the feasibility of using environmentally friendly amendments, and emphasizing waste management in the primary industry through additional studies and research, there is a need for proper and appropriate measures that are naturally environmentally friendly in the long term. Nevertheless, additional research on the application of various amendments resulting from the direct or modified use of significant industrial wastes with respect to various aspects of environmental, economic, ecological, and even aesthetic and at different scales is necessary to summarize and develop appropriate executive instructions.


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