Evaluation of quantitative, qualitative yield and water productivity of two Amarantuse cultivars under different irrigation regimes

Document Type : Complete scientific research article


1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

2 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran


Background and Objectives: Amarantuse farming is a way to increase biodiversity. It has high photosynthetic efficiency and is resistant to drought conditions, so it is suitable for cultivation in arid regions and reducing irrigation costs. The desirable agronomic traits (high vegetative growth rate in hot months of the year, drought tolerance and water productivity) and its qualitative (high levels of protein in seed and forage) make this plant a valuable forage plant.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted to investigate the quantitative and qualitative yield and water use of forage amarantuse in Golestan province. The experiment was conducted as split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The amount of water consumed (including full irrigation, 75%, 50% and 25% of total irrigation) were in the main plots and the amarantuse varieties (including two cultivars Cim and Loura) were sub-plots..
Results: Analysis of variance showed that the simple effect of cultivar and the simple effect of irrigation on plant height, fresh forage weight, fresh and dry stem weight, total dry matter weight, water productivity (based on forage fresh weight yield), insoluble fiber yield were significant. The effect of irrigation on all studied traits was significant at 1% level and two traits of protein yield and water productivity (based on dry matter) were only affected by irrigation regime. Interaction effects of cultivar irrigation on leaf traits, fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaf to stem ratio, insoluble fiber (NDF), percentage of crude fat, lignin, calcium and phosphorus were significant. Results of mean comparison showed that dry matter yield in Cim (6 ton / ha-1) was higher than Loura (5.5 ton / ha-1). The highest water productivity based on fresh and dry weight was 17.1 and 2.2 kg / m-3, respectively, with 75% of total irrigation. The highest protein yield was obtained in the complete irrigation treatment, and by reducing the amount of irrigation by 25%, the total amount of protein decreased. The highest and the lowest protein content in irrigation treatments were 947 and 433 kg ha-1, respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Cim was superior to Loura for most of the agronomic and qualitative traits of forage, so that in terms of leaf and stem weight, leaf to stem ratio, phosphorus and especially water productivity. Repeating these results in similar experiments and considering the results, it is advisable to obtain high quality forage Cim in Gorgan climate conditions and to save water (increase productivity), Irrigation can be adjusted to 75% of the water requirement.


1.Abbasi, D., Rouzbehan, Y., and Rezaei, J. 2012. Effect of harvest date and nitrogen fertilization rate on the nutritive value of Amaranth forage (Amarantus hypochondriacus). Animal Feed Sci. Technol. 17: 1. 6-13.
2.Akparobi, S. 2009.  Effect of farmyard manures on the growth and yield of Amaranthus cruentus. Agric. Trop. Et Subtrop. 2009. 4:2.1-4.
3.Alahbakhsh, E., Galavi, M., Mousavi Nick, S.M., and Mohkami, Z. 2019.Effects of irrigation regimes and fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative traits of Purslan (Portolaca oleraceae). J. Water Soil Cons. 26: 1. 247-253.
4.AOAC. 2005. Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, D.C. 123p.
5.Asay, K.H., Jensen, K.B., Waldron, B.L., Han, G., and Monaco, T.A. 2002. Forage quality of tall fescue across an irrigation gradient. Agron. J. 94: 3. 1337-1343.
6.Barba de la Rosa, A.P., Fomsgaard, I.S., Laursen, B., Mortensen, A.G., Olvera-Martínez, L., Silva-Sánchez, C., Mendoza-Herrera, A., González-Castañeda, J., and De León-Rodríguez, D. 2009. Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as an alternative crop for sustainable food production: phenolic acids and flavonoids with potential impact on its nutraceutical quality. J. Cereal Sci. 4: 9. 117-121.
7.Biglouei, M.H., Kafi Ghasemi, A., Javaherdashti, M., and Esfahani, M. 2013. Effect of irrigation regimes on yield and quality of forage Maize (KSC 704) in Rasht region in Iran. Iran. J. Crop Sci.
15: 3. 196-206. (In Persian)
8.Chivenge, P., Mabhaudhi, T., Modi, A.T., and Mafongoya, P. 2015. The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Inter. J. Environ. Res. Pub. Health. 12: 6. 5685-5711. ISSN 1660-4601.
9.Ejieji, C.J., and Adeniran, K.A. 2010. Effects of water and fertilizer stress on the yield, fresh and dry matter production of grain Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus). Austr. J. Agric. Engin. 1: 1. 18-24.
10.Feyzbakhsh, M.T., Mokhtarpour, H., Jafar Node,S., and Sheikh, F. 2018. Study the effects of plant density on forage yield and morphological traits of three forage Amaranth cultivars in Gorgan climate conditions. J. Crop Prod. Res. 10: 3. 327-343. (In Persian)
11.Johnson, B., and Henderson, T. 2002. Water use patterns of grain amaranth in the Northern Great Plains. Agron. J. 9: 4. 1437-1443.
13.Lithourgidis, A.S., Dahima, K.V., Vasilakoglou, I.B., and Yiakoulaki, M.D. 2007. Mixtures of Cereals and Commom Vetch for Forage Production and Their Competition with Weed. In: proceeding of 10 conference genetics and plant breeding society of Greek. Athens. Field Crops Research. 3: 2. 245-256.
14.Liu, F., and Stützel, H. 2004. Biomass partitioning, specific leaf area, and water use efficiency of vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) in response to drought stress. Science Horticulture. 10: 2. 15-27.
15.Masariramb, M.T., Dlamini, Z., Manyatsi, A.M., Wahome, P.K., Oseni, T.O., and Shongwe1, V.D. 2012. Soil Water Requirements of Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) Grown in a Greenhouse in a Semi-Arid, Sub-Tropical Environment. Amer. - Eurasi. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 12: 7. 932-936.
16.Mazloom Aliabadi, U., Vaezi, A.R., and and Nikbakht, J. 2019. Effect of straw mulch and tillage direction on temporal variation of soil moisture in Wheat rain-fed system. J. Water Soil Cons. 261: 1. 71-88. DOI:10.22069/jwsc. 2019. 15271. 3046.
17.Moshaver, E., Emam, Y., Madani, H., Nour Mohamadi, Gh., and Heidari Sharifabad, H. 2016. Comparison of Yield and Some Forage Qualitative Characteristics of Corn, Sorghum and Amaranth in Response to Density and Sowing Date in Fars Province. J. Crop Ecophysiol. 10: 1. 103-120.
18.Ogunlela, A.O., and Sadiku, I.B.S. 2017. Yield and water use efficiency of Amaranthus cruentus grown under soil moisture sensor-based (sms-based) irrigation system. J. Res. Forest. Wildlife Environ. 9: 3. 47-58.
19.Oktem, A., Simsek, M., and Oktem, A.G. 2003. Deficit irrigation effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt) with drip irrigation in a semi-arid region. I. Water yield relationship. Agric. Water Manage. 61: 1. 63-74.
20.Palada, M., and Chang, L. 2003. Suggested Cultural Practices for Vegetable Amaranth. The World Vegetable Centre (AVRDC), International Cooperators’ Fact Sheet; Shanhua, Taiwan. 2: 4. 3-552.
21.Reta Alemayehu, F., Bendevis, M., and Jacobsen, S.E. 2014. The potential for utilizing the seed crop amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) in East Africa as an alternative crop to support food security and climate change mitigation. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 3: 2. 95-109.
22.Ribeiro, J., Petrus, P., and Sebastião, F. 2018. Amaranth grain production as affected by watering regimes and day length in southern Mozambique, South Afric. J. Plant Soil. 35: 23-32.
23.Safaei, A.M., Rezaei, M., and Rahnama, A.A. 2016. Compariing the quantitive characteristics and nutritional value of three varieties of Amaranth in farms located in Alborz Province; a Joint
Case Stady. Appl. Anim. Sci. Res. J.20: 1. 31-42.