Impact assessment of different management strategies implementation on the aquifer using numerical simulation (Case study: Namdan aquifer, Fars province, Iran)

Document Type : Complete scientific research article


1 M.Sc., Water Resources Engineering Dept., Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Water Resources Eng. Dept., Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran, Iran


Background and Objectives: Nowadays, in addition to increase in the population growth, decrease in precipitation and surface flows in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, has caused to increase the extraction of groundwater resources and therefore many problems in this valuable and non-renewable resources. In this regard, assessing, monitoring and prediction of the groundwater resources behavior is significant. In this study, a developed numerical simulation model with finite difference solution using MATLAB was applied to evaluate the groundwater elevation changes in a real case.
Materials and Methods: The study area is the Namdan aquifer located in the Tashk- Bakhtegan basin, Fars province, Iran. The transient finite difference model was developed to assess the groundwater elevation changes. For setting up the model, the study area zoned manually considering the various factors and finally 50 cells were considered. In addition to the groundwater flow interactions between cells, the interactions between boundary cells and inflows and outflows boundaries took account into the modeling. The recharge parameters were calibrated using try and error method while the hydraulic conductivities were calibrated using an optimization problem with an objective function of minimizing the residual sum of squares of water table prediction and observation (a period of 7 years) using an evolutionary ant colony optimization tool and "R" ^2 "=0.93" obtained. Furthermore, the calibrated model verified for a period of 3 years.
Results: The aquifers condition was assessed in transient condition for a period of 30 years, under 7 various scenarios which have been compiled from climate, utilization, crop pattern and the aquifer restoration plan of Iran indexes. By a decrease of 10% in the precipitation and an increase of 20% in the extractions, the groundwater elevation will drop by 0.9 meter and 6.1 meter, respectively. Changing the crop pattern from wheat to barley which consumes less water, causes 4.4 meters rising in the groundwater elevation. In the removing unlicensed wells scenario, the annual water level rising will be 0.45 meter in average.
Conclusion: The groundwater elevation has been faced with the most changes in the scenario of removing unlicensed wells in all over the study area compared to other scenarios and at the end of simulation period, it would be predicted that the groundwater elevation will increase about 19.6 m. This shows the necessity of paying attention to determining unlicensed wells condition in the aquifer restoration plan more than ever.
Keywords: Aquifer restoration plan, Finite difference method, Groundwater, Namdan aquifer, Numerical simulation


1.Anan, M., Yuge, K., Nakano, Y., Saptomo, S., and Haraguchi, T. 2007. Quantification of the effect of rice paddy area changes on recharging groundwater. Paddy and Water environment. 5: 41-47.
2.Aquifer Restoration Plan 2014. Ministry of Energy, Water Assistance. The 5th instruction. (In Persian)
3.Ataie-Ashtiani, B., and Ketabchi, H. 2011. Elitist continuous ant colony optimization algorithm for optimal management of coastal aquifers. Water resources management. 25: 165-190.
4.El-Kadi, A.I., Tillery, S., Whittier, R.B., Hagedorn, B., Mair, A., Ha, K., and Koh, G.W. 2014. Assessing sustainability of groundwater resources on Jeju Island, South Korea, under climate change, drought, and increased usage. Hydrogeol. J. 22: 625-642.
5.Farhoudi-Hafdaran, R., and Ketabchi, H. 2018. Numerical simulation of Urmia Lake and Ajabshir coastal aquifer interaction. Iran-Water Resources Research. 14: 45-58. (In Persian)
 6.Hajipour, M., Zakerinia, M., Ziaee, A.N., and Hesam, M. 2015. Water demand management in agriculture and its impact on water resources of Bojnourd basin with WEAP and MODFLOW models. J. Water Soil Cons. 22: 85-101. (In Persian)
7.Hamraz, B., Akbarpour, A., and Pourreza-Bilondi, M. 2014. Assessment of parameter uncertainty of MODFLOW model using GLUE method (Case study: Birjand plain). J. Water Soil Cons. 22: 61-79. (In Persian)
8.Iran Water Resources Management Company 2016. Ministry of Energy, Fars Regional Water Authority. Updating water resources studies report of Tashk- Bakhtegan & Maharlou lakes river basin. (In Persian)
9.Ketabchi, H., Nik-Khah, R., and Morid, S. 2018a. Numerical simulation of Namdan aquifer in the Fars province of Iran: Assessment of green water management impacts on the aquifer restoration. Iran-Water Resources Research. 14: 119-130. (In Persian)
10.Ketabchi, H., and Ataie-Ashtiani, B. 2015a. Assessment of a parallel evolutionary optimization approach for efficient management of coastal aquifers, Environmental Modelling & Software. 74: 21-38.
11.Ketabchi, H., and Ataie-Ashtiani, B. 2015b. Review: Coastal groundwater optimization - advances, challenges and practical solutions, Hydrogeol. J. 23: 1129-1154. (The Theme Issue Optimization for Groundwater Characterization and Management)
12.Ketabchi, H., and Ataie-Ashtiani, B. 2015c. Evolutionary algorithms for the optimal management of coastal groundwater: A comparative study toward future challenges, J. Hydrol. 520: 193-213.
13.Ketabchi, H., and Ataie-Ashtiani., B. 2011. Development of Combined Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm and Numerical Simulation for Optimal Management of Coastal Aquifers. Iran-Water Resources Research. 7: 1-12. (In Persian)
14.Ketabchi, H., Mahmoudzadeh, D., Ghadimi, S., and Saghi Jadid, M. 2018b. A review of evaluating groundwater balance in Iran: Methods and suggestions. Islamic Parliament Research Center of The Islamic Republic Of Iran, Head of Research and production, Department of Water and Environmen. (In Persian)
15.Lalehzari, R., and Abbaslou, H. 2016. Simulating the effect of optimal water allocation on groundwater in monthly stress periods (Baghmalek plain, Khuzestan province). J. Water Soil Sci. 26: 307-320. (In Persian)
16.Lalehzari, R., Tabatabaei, S.H., Khayat-Kholghi, M., Yarali, N., and Saba, A. 2013. Evaluating the effect of artificial recharging with treated sewage scenarios on quality and quantity of the Shahre-Kord aquifer. J. Environ. Stud. 40: 221-236. (In Persian)
17.Mahmoodzadeh, D., Ketabchi, H., Ataie-Ashtiani, B., and Simmons, C.T 2014. Conceptualization of a fresh groundwater lens influenced by climate change: A modeling study of an arid-region island in the Persian Gulf, Iran. J. Hydrol. 519: 399-413.
18.Mahmoodzadeh, D., Ketabchi, H., and Ataie-Ashtiani, B. 2016. Optimized management of groundwater resources in Kish Island: A sensitivity analysis of optimal strategies in response to environmental changed. J. Water Wastewater. 27: 61-70. (In Persian)
19.National Climate Change Office, Department of Environment, 2010. Iran third national Communication to UNFCCC. (In Persian)
20.National document of water 1999. Ministry of Agriculture Jihad-Meteorological Organization. (In Persian)
21.Nik-Khah, R. 2017. Groundwater resources condition under joint green and blue water management and climate change using SWAT and MODFLOW models. Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Water Resources Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Faculty of Agriculture. (In Persian)
22.Parsa Sadr, H., Mohammadzadeh, H., and Nassery, H.R. 016. Numerical simulating of Sabzevar Roudab aquifer and checking influences of constructing Sabzevar Roudab dam on it. J. Water Soil Cons. 23: 119-135. (In Persian)
23.Rezapour Tabari, M., and Eil-Beige, M. 2014. Auto-Calibration of Aquifer Parameters Using Aquifer Distributed Mathematical Models and Direct Searching Algorithm. J. Water Wastewater. 25: 98-109. (In Persian)
24.Safavi, H., Afshar, A., and Abrishamchi, A. 2006. A quality-quantity simulation model for stream-aquifer interactions. J. Water Wastewater. 18: 2-14. (In Persian)
25.Sanford, W.E., and Pope, J.P. 2010. Current challenges using models to forecast seawater intrusion: lessons from the Eastern Shore of Virginia, USA. Hydrogeol. J. 18: 73-93.
 26.Singh, A., Nath Panda, S., Flugel, W. A., and Krause, P. 2012. Waterlogging and farmland salinisation: causes and remedial measures in an irrigated semi‐arid region of India. Irrigation and drainage. 61: 357-365.
27.Tóth, Á., Havril, T., Simon, S., Galsa, A., Santos, F.A.M., Müller, I., and Mádl-Szőnyi, J. 2016. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction. J. Hydrol. 539: 330-344.
28.United Nations (UN). 2017. World Population Prospects, the 2017 Revision.
29.Yari, E., and Dadmehr, R. 2012. Evaluation the effect of increasing the Irrigation efficiency on evapotranspiration of groundwater aquifer – The case of Zarrineh rud plain. J. Iran Water Res.
6: 145-154. (In Persian)