Comparison The Ability Of Nano-Clays And Clays Extracted From Different Soils In Retention of Some Heavy Metals

Document Type : Complete scientific research article



Background and objectives: nano-clays and clays are the most important components constructing soil ecosystems. Which The soil physical and chemical properties depend on their types and amounts. Therefore, they have a key role in soil quality. Most clays particles have nano size at least in one dimention. This characteristic of clay enriches some soil capabilities such as the heavy metals retention processes in soil. Clays separated from volcanic ash like Andisol, in clay size particles there are different structures of nano particles such as alominosilicats with nanoball and nanotube constriction. These particles play an important role in the physical and chemical properties of volcanic soils, stored organic matter, phosphorus stabilization, heavy metals retention, water and biogeochemical processes. Release of heavy metal onto the water and soil as a result of agricultural and industrial activities may pose a serious threat to the environment. In this study, the adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+ has been studied in order to compare the ability of Nano-Clays And Clays separated from Different Soils in Retention of Some Heavy Metals.
Materials and Methods: Twelve samples taken from 5 pedons with different clay mineralogy in three regions around the city of Karaj were measured. After the removing organic material, the soluble salts, carbonates and iron oxides from the soils, pure clays were treated by x-ray diffractive device and diffractions were interpreted. clays and nano-clays were purified and measured retention of cadmium and lead in solutions with different concentrations, 0, 1.6, 8.3, 16.6 and 33.3 ppm, at constant pH. The aim of this research is to evaluation of the effect of soil components particularly clay and nano Clay on the absorption of heavy metal at constant pH. Therefore, we studied absorption amount of lead and cadmium by the clay and natural nanoclay soils after removing cement and seprating using standard methods, at pH 6.
Results: The soils were classified in two groups of Aridisol and Andisol. The current study showed that the bulk of soil mineralogy consist of combination of ilitic, cloritic, smectite and hydroxy inter layer minerals. Also the results showed that the heavy metals retention of soils depend on the different types of element. In all Andic and non-Andic samples, the retention capability showed significant enrichment with increasing heavy metals concentrations. But the trends of retention in nano-clays showed a steeper slope in comparison with clays.
Conclusion: Cadmium absorption of the samples(nano-clays and clays) stopped at 8/3 mg/lit, but lead absorotion. But lead absorption at studied cincentration was increased by increasing trend. The results indicated that in the most samples derived from non-Andic soils their absorption trend was as (Pb> Cd) and in the Andic soils it was (Pb> Cd).


1.Abidin, Z., Matsue, N., and Henmi, T. 2007. Differential formation of allophane and imogolite: Experimental and molecular orbital study. J. Comp.-Aided Mater. Des. 14: 5-18.
2.Alumaa, P., Kirso, U., Petersell, V., and Steinnes, E. 2002. Sorption of toxic heavy metals to soils. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 204: 275-276.
3.Babel, S., and Kurniawan, T.A. 2003. Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. J. Hazard. Mater. 97: 219-243.
4.Barakat, M.A. 2011. New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Review article. Arab. J. Chem. 4: 361-377.
5.Barka, N., Qourzal, S., Assabbane, A., Nounah, A., and Ait-Ichou, Y. 2011. Removal of reactive yellow 84 from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto hydroxyapatite. J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 15: 263-7.
6.Basile-Doelsch, I., Amundson, R., Stone, W., Masiello, C., Bottero, J.Y., Colin, F., Masin, F., Borschneck, D., and Meunier, J.D. 2005. Mineral control of soil organic carbon dynamic in an allophanic soil (La Réunion). Europ. J. Soil Sci. 56: 6. 689-703.
7.Benjamin, M.M., and Leckie, J.O. 1981. Conceptual model for metal-ligand-surface interactions during adsorption. Environmental Science and Technology. 15: 1050-1057.
8.Calabi-Floody, M., Bendall, J.S., Jara, A.A., Welland, M.E., Theng, B.K.G., Rumpel, C., and Mora, M.L. 2011. Nanoclays from an Andisol: extraction, properties and carbon stabilization. Geoderma. 161: 159-167.
9.Clark, C.J., and McBride, M.B. 1984. Chemisorption of Cu(II) and Co(II) on allophane and imogolite. Clays and Clay Miner. 32: 300-310.
10.Clark, C.J., and McBride, M.B. 1985. Adsorption of Cu(II) by allophane as affected by phosphate. Soil Sci. 139: 412-421.
11.Covelo, E.F., Andrade, M.L., and Vega, F.A. 2004. Simultaneous adsorption of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by different soils. J. Food Agric. Environ. 2: 244-250.
12.Dawodu, F.A., and Akpomie, K.G. 2014. Simultaneous adsorption of Ni(II) and Mn(II) ions from aqueous solution unto a Nigerian kaolinite clay. J. Mater Res. Technol. 3: 2. 129-141.
13.Delvaux, B.E., Dufey, L.V., and Herbillon, A.J. 1989. Potassium exchange behavior in a weathering sequence of volcanic ash soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 1679-1684.
14.Dixon, J.B., Weed, S.B., and Kittrick, J.A. 1986. Minerals in Soil Environment. 2nd Ed. SSSA. Book Series No. 1.  
15.Farmer, V.C., Fraser, A.R., and Tait, J.M. 1977. Synthesis of imogolite: a tubular aluminium silicate polymer. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 6: 462-463.
16.Genc-Fuhrman, H., Mikkelsen, P.S., and Ledin, A. 2007. Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater: Experimental comparison of 11 different sorbents. Water Research. 41: 591-602.
17.Ghorbel-Abid, I., Galai, K., and Trabelsi-Ayadi, M. 2010. Retention of chromium (III) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solution by illitic clay as a low-cost adsorbent. Desalination. 256: 190-195.
18.Hall, P.L., Churkman, G.J., and Theng, B.K.G. 1985. Size distribution of allophane unit particles in aqueous suspensions. Clays and Clay Miner. 33: 345-349.
19.Handershot, W.H., and Duquette, M. 1986. A simple barium chloride method for determining cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50: 605-608.
20.Illera, V., Garrido, F., Serrano, S., and Gonzalez. G.M.T. 2004. Immobilization of the heavy metals Cd, Cu and Pb in an acid soil amended with gypsum- and lime- rich industrial byproducts. 55: 1.
21.Jara, A.A., Violante, A., Pigna, M., and Mora, M.L. 2006. Mutual interactions of sulfate, oxalate, citrate, and phosphate on synthetic and natural allophanes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
70: 337-346.
22.Karnib, M., Kabbani, A., Holail, H., and Olama, Z. 2014. Heavy Metals Removal Using Activated Carbon, Silica and Silica Activated Carbon Composite. Energy Procedia.
50: 113-120.
23.Khan, H., Matsue, N., and Henmi, T. 2006. Adsorption of water on nano-ball allophane. Clay Science. 12: 2. 261-266.
24.Krishna Reddy, R., Xie, T., and Dastgheibi, S. 2014. Removal of heavy metals from urban storm water runoff using different filter materials. J. Environ. Chem. Engin. 2: 282-292.
25.Krishna Bhattacharyya, G., and Gupta, S.S. 2006. Pb(II) uptake by kaolinite and montmorillonite in aqueous medium: Influence of acid activation of the clays. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects. 277: 191-200.
26.Kushwaha, A.K., Gupta, N., and Chattopadhyaya, M.C. 2012. Adsorption behavior of lead onto a new class of functionalized silica gel. Arab. J. Chem. DOI.
27.Lair, G.J., Gerzabek, M.H., and Haberhauer, G. 2007. Retention of copper, cadmium and zinc in soil and its textural fractions influenced by long-term field management. Europ. J. Soil Sci. 58: 1145-1154.
28.Levard, C., Doelsch, E., Rose, J., Masion, A., Basile-Doelsch, I., Proux, O., Hazemann, J.L., Borschneck, D., and Bottero, J.Y. 2009. Role of natural nanoparticles on the speciation of Ni in andosols of la Reunion. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 73: 16. 4750-4760.
29.Li, Z., and Hu, N. 2003. Direct electrochemistry of hemeproteins in their layer-by-layer films with clay nanoparticles. J. Elec. Chem. 558: 155-165.
30.Mekatel, H., Amokrane, S., Benturki, A., and Nibou, D. 2012. Treatment of Polluted Aqueous Solutions by Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr+6, Cd+2 and Co+2 Ions by Ion Exchange Process Using Faujasite Zeolite. Procedia Engineering. 33: 52-57.
31.Mobasherpour, I., Salahi, E., and Pazouki, M. 2012. Comparative of the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ by nano crystallite hydroxyapatite from aqueoussolutions: Adsorption isotherm study. Arab. J. Chem. 5: 439-446.
32.Monajjem, M.A., Heidari, A., and Bagheri Marandi, G. 2013. An investigation the role of nanoclays on some soil physico-chemical properties. M.Sc. Thesis, Soil Science, University of Tehran. (In Persian)
33.Naseem, R., and Tahir, S.S. 2000. Thermodynamic studies of Mn(II) and Fe(II) adsorption on to bentonite. J. Chem. Therm. 32: 651-658.
34.Olguin, M.T., Rios, M.S., Acosta, D., Bosch, P., and Bulbulian, S. 1997. UO2 sorption on bentonite. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 218: 65-69.
35.Srivastava, P., Singh, B., and Angove, M. 2005. Competitive adsorption behavior of heavy metals on kaolinite. J. Coll. Int. Sci. 290: 28-38.
36.Parfitt, R.L. 1989. Phosphate reactions with natural allophane, ferrihydrite and goethite.
J. Soil Sci. 40: 2. 359-369.
37.Parfitt, R.L. 2009. Allophane and imogolite: role in soil biogeochemical processes.
Clay Minerals. 44: 1. 135-155.
38.Rios, C.A., Williams, C.D., and Roberts, C.L. 2008. Removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites. J. Hazard. Mater. 156: 23-35.
39.Saha, U.K., Taniguuchi, S., and Sakurai, K. 2002. Simultaneous adsorption of cadmium, zinc, and lead on hydroxyl aluminum- and hydroxyl aluminosilicate - montmorillonite complexes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66: 117-128.
 40.Sheet, I., Kabbani, A., and Holail, H. 2014. Removal of Heavy Metals Using Nanostructured Graphite Oxide, Silica Nanoparticles and Silica/Graphite Oxide Composite. Energy Procedia. 50: 130-138.
41.Shukla, A., Zhang, Y.H., Dubey, P., Marqrave, J.L., and Shukla, S.S. 2002. The role of sawdust in the removal of unwanted materials from water. Hazard Mater. 95: 1-2. 137-52.
42.Soil survey staff. 2014. Soil survey field and laboratory methods manual. Soil survey investigations report. No. 51. Version 20. Department of agriculture, natural resources conservation service.
43.Tanabe, K. 1981. Solid Acid and Base Catalysis, Springer-Verlag, New York.
44.Tanneberg, H., and Jahn, R. 2002. Heavy metal sorption by andic and non-andic horizons from volcanic parent materials.Soils of Volcanic Regions in Europe. springer. Pp: 423-435.
45.Tsia, W.T., and Chen, H.R. 2010. Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using low-cost chlorella based biomass. J. Hazard Mater. 175: 1-3. 844-849. 
46.Usman, A.R.A. 2008. The relative adsorption selectivities of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni by soils developed on shale in New Valley, Egypt. Geoderma. 144: 334-343.
47.Van Ranst, E., Utami, S.R., Verdoodt, A., and Qafoku, N.P. 2008. Mineralogy of a perudic Andosol in central Java, Indonesia. Geoderma. 144: 379-386.
48.Vega, F.A., Covelo, E.F., and Andrade, M.L. 2006. Competitive sorption and desorption
of heavy metals in mine soils: Influence of mine soil characteristics. J. Coll. Int. Sci.
298: 582-592.
49.Walkley, A., and Black, C.A. 1934. An examination of the Dettjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method.
Soil Sci. 37: 29-38.
50.Weng, C.H., Lin, Y.T., and Tzeng, T.W. 2009. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder. J. Hazard. Mater. 170: 417-424.
51.Yong, R.N., and Phadangchewit, Y. 1993. pH Influence on selectivity and Retention of heavy Metals in some soils. Can. Geotech. J. 30: 821-833.
52.Yuan, G., Percival, H.J., Theng, B.K.G., and Parfitt, R.L. 2002. Sorption of Copper and Cadmium by Allophane-Humic Complexes. Developments in Soil Science, 28: 37-47.