Comparison of soil loss from experimental plots established in different parts of a forest road

Document Type : Complete scientific research article



In the present study, some factors were investigated affecting soil loss in forest roads of Darabkola Watershed located in Mazandaran Province, Iran. In this regard, soil loss was investigated affected by longitudinal slope of road, road graveling and wheel rut caused by movement of heavy machineries, using rainfall simulator. The results indicated that, there is significant differences (p


1.Adekalu, K.O., Okunade, D.A., and Osunbitan, J.A. 2006. Compaction and mulching
effects on soil loss and runoff from two southwestern Nigeria agricultural soils. Geoderma. 137: 226-130.
2.Akbarimehr, M., and Jalilvand, H. 2013. Considering the relationship of slope and soil loss on skid trails in the north of Iran (a case study). J. For. Sci. 59: 9. 339-344.
3.Akbarimehr, M., and Naghdi, R. 2012. Assessing the relationship of slope and runoff volume on skid trails (Case study: Nav 3 district). J. For. Sci. 58: 8. 357-362.
4.Arna´ez, J., Larreab, V., and Ortigosaa, L. 2004. Surface runoff and soil erosion on unpaved forest roads from rainfall simulation tests in northeastern Spain. Catena. 57: 1-14.
5.Awotoye, O.O., Ogunkunle, C.O., and Adeniyi, S.A. 2011. Assessment of soil quality under various land use practices in a humid agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Afric. J. Plant Sci.
5: 10. 565-569.
6.Azmoodeh, A., Kavian, A., solaimani, K., and Vahabzadeh, Gh. 2010. Comparing Runoff and Soil Erosion in Forest, Dry Farming and GardenLand Uses Soils Using Rainfall Simulator. J. Water Soil. 24: 3. 490-500. (In Persian)
7.Bagarello, V., Di-Stefano, C., Ferro, V., Kinnell, P.I.A., Pampalone, V., Porto, P., and Todisco, F. 2011. Predicting soil loss on moderate slopes using an empirical model for sediment concentration. J. Hydrol. 400: 267-273.
8.Bagheri, I., Naghdi, R., and Moradmand Jalali, A. 2013. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Water Erosion along Skid Trails (Case study; ShafaroodForest, Northern Iran). Caspian
J. Environ. Sci. 11: 2. 151-160.
9.Bhupinderpal, S., Hedley, M.J., Saggar, S., and Francis, G.S. 2004. Chemical fractionation to characterize changes in sulphur and carbon in soil caused by management. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55: 79-90.
10.Cambi, M., Certini, G., Neri, F., and Marchi, E. 2015. The impact of heavy traffic on forest soils: A review. Forest Ecology and Management. 338: 124-138.
11.Carlos, E., and Ramos, S. 2010. Sediment production from unpaved roads in a sub-tropical dry setting, Southwestern Puerto Rico. Catena. 82: 146-158.
12.Foltz, R.B., Copeland, N.S., and Elliot, W.J. 2009. Reopening abandoned forest roads in northern Idaho, USA: Quantification of runoff, sediment concentration, infiltration, and interrill erosion parameters. J. Environ. Manage. 90: 2542-2550.
13.Ghahraman, B., and Abkhezr, H.R. 2004. Correction of the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency equations in Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Natur. Resour. Water and Soil Science. 8: 2. 1-13. (In Persian)
14.Gholami, L. 2007. Model preparation of storms sediment yield estimate in the part of Gheshlagh watershed of Kurdestan province. M.Sc. thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marin Sciences, Pp: 5-15. (In Persian)
15.Gholami, L., Sadeghi, S.H.R., and Homaee, M. 2012. Straw Mulching Effect on Splash Erosion, Runoff, and Sediment Yield from Eroded Plots. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 77: 268-278.
16.Javadi, P., Rouhi Pour, H., and Mahbobi, A.A. 2005. The role of graveling coverage on amount of erosion and runoff using flume and rainfall simulation. Iran. J. Range Des. Res. 12: 3. 287-310. (In Persian)
17.Jordán-López, A., and Martinez-Zavala, L. 2008. Soil loss and runoff rates on unpaved
forest roads in southern Spain after simulated rainfall. Forest Ecology and Management.
255: 913-919.
18.Jordán-López, A., Martinez-Zavala, L., and Bellinfante, N. 2009. Impact of different parts of unpaved forest roads on runoff and sediment yield in a Mediterranean area. J. Sci. Total Environ. 407: 937-944.
19.Khazayi, M., Sadeghi, S.H.R., and Mirnia, S.Kh. 2011. Hydrological effects of forest surface disturbance, a case study. Iran. J. For. 3: 2. 145-155. (In Persian)
20.Lotfalian, M., Shirvani, Z., and Naghavi, H. 2009. Investigation of effective factors on skid roads erosion. Iran. J. For. Iran. Soc. For. 1: 2. 115-124. (In Persian)
21.Najafi, A., Solgi, A., and Sadeghi, S.H.R. 2010. Effects of Skid Trail Slope and Ground Skidding on Soil Disturbance. Caspian J. Env. Sci. 8: 1. 13-23.
22.Parsakhoo, A. 2012. Investigation of the runoff and soil loss rate of different segments of forest road structure using rainfall simulation. Ph.D thesis, Sari Agricultural Sciences and NaturalResourcesUniversity, Faculty of Natural Resources, 169p. (In Persian)
23.Ramos, M.C., Nacci, S., and Pal, I. 2000. Soil sealing and its influence on erosion rates for some soils in the Mediterranean area. Soil Sciences. 165: 398-403.
24.Ramos-Scharrón, C.E., and MacDonald, L.H. 2005. Measurement and prediction of sediment production from unpaved roads, St John, USVirgin Islands. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 30: 1283-1304.
25.Sadeghi, S.H.R., and Yasrebi, B. 2008. Soil and Water Conservation in Forest Watersheds. Iranian National Commission on Soil Erosion & Sediment Yield, Rahe Sobhan Press, 107p.
26.Sadeghi, S.H.R., Mizuyama, T., Miyata, S., Gomi, T., Kosugi, K., Fukushima, T., Mizugaki, S., and Onda, Y. 2008a. Development, evaluation and interpretation of sediment rating curves for a Japanese small mountainous reforested watershed. Geoderma. 144: 198-211.
27.Sadeghi, S.H.R., Hedayati Zadeh, R., Naderi, H., and Hoseinali Zadeh, M. 2008b. Camparison of runoff and sediment yield in different Quaterner formations in Sarchah Amari rangelands of Birjand. Range. J. Sci. Res. J. Iran. Range. Manage. Soc. 2: 4. 449-463. (In Persian)
28.Sadeghi, S.H.R. 2010. Study and Measurement of Water Erosion. TarbiatModaresUniversity Press, 199p.  
29.Sadeghi, S.H.R., Mohamadpour, K., and Dianati Tilki, Gh.A. 2010. Variability of sediment yield from treatments of short-time nongrazing and open grazing in Kadir rangeland. Range. J. Sci. Res. J. Iran. Range. Manage. Soc. 4: 3. 484-493. (In Persian)
30.Sadeghi, S.H.R., Bashari Seghaleh, M., and Rangavar, A.S. 2011. Plot sizes
dependency of runoff and sediment yield estimates from a small watershed. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.003.
31.Safari, A. 2012. Measurement of runoff and soil loss in the Darabkola forest roads. M.Sc. thesis, Department of watershed management engineering. Sari Agricultural Sciences and NaturalResourcesUniversity, Faculty of Natural Resources, 97p. (In Persian) 
32.Sakai, H., Nordfjell, T., Suadicani, K., Talbot, B., and Bøllehuus, E. 2008. Soil compaction on forest soils from different kinds of tires and tracks and possibility of accurate estimate. Croat. J. For. Engin. 29: 1. 15-27.
33.Santos, F.L., Reis, J.L., Martins, O.C., Castanheria, N.L., and Serralherio, R.P. 2003. Comparative assessment of infiltration, runoff and erosion of sprinkler irrigation soils. Biosystems Engineering. 86: 3. 355-364.
34.Sharma, A., Tiwari, K.N., and Bhadoria, P.B.S. 2011. Effect of land use land cover change on soil erosion potential in an agricultural watershed. Environ. Monit. Assess. 173: 789-801.
35.Sharply, A., and Kleinman, P. 2003. Effect of Rainfall Simulator and Plot on over land flow and Phosphorous transport. J. Environ. Qual. 32: 2172-2179.
36.Sheridan, G.J., Noske, P.J., Lane, P.N.J., and Sherwin, Ch.B. 2008. Using rainfall simulation and site measurements to predict annual interrill erodibility and phosphorus generation rates from unsealed forest roads: Validation against in-situ erosion measurements. Catena. 73: 49-62.
37.Sidle, R.C., Hirano, T., Gomi, T., and Terajima, T. 2007. Hortonian overland flow from Japanese forest plantations-an aberration, the real thing, or something in between?, Hydrological Processes. 21: 3237-3247.
38.Solgi, A., and Najafi, A. 2014. The impacts of ground-based logging equipment on forest soil. J. For. Sci. 60: 1. 28-34.
39.Solgi, A., Najafi, A., and Sadeghi, S.H.R. 2014. Effects of traffic frequency and skid trail slope on surface runoff and sediment yield. Inter. J. For. Engin. 25: 2. 171-178.
40.The Natural Resources and Watershed Management General Office of MazandaranProvince. 2003. Forest management plan handbook of Darabkola. Department of Forests and Rangelands, 325p. (In Persian)  
41.Wischmeier, W.H., Hohnson, C.B., and Cross, B.V. 1971. Soil erodibility nomograph for farmland and construction sites. J. Soil Water Cons. 26: 189-193.
42.Xu, X.L., Liu, W., Kong, Y.P., Zhang, K.L., Yu, B., and Chen, J.D. 2009. Runoff and water erosion on road side-slopes: Effects of rainfall characteristics and slope length. Transportation Research Part D. 14: 497-501.
43.Yousefi, S. 2011. Effects of geomorphological factors on degradation area resulted from forest road construction. M.Sc. thesis, TarbiatModaresUniversity, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marin Sciences, 63p. (In Persian) 
44.Zarin Kafsh, M. 1994. Application Pedology. TehranUniversity Press, 236p. (In Persian)