شکل‌های پتاسیم خاک و پارامترهای کمیت به شدت (Q/I) پتاسیم و همبستگی آن با برخی خصوصیات خاک در مناطق زیرکشت توتون شمال‌غرب ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

3 استاد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

4 استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

5 استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: پتاسیم نقش حیاتی در افزایش عملکرد و کیفیت توتون (Nicotiana tabacum) از جمله به‌سوزی برگ توتون دارد. پتاسیم در خاک به ترتیب کاهش قابلیت استفاده برای گیاه شامل بخش‌های محلول، تبادلی، غیرتبادلی و ساختمانی می‌باشد. قابلیت استفاده پتاسیم به تقابل دینامیکی اشکال مختلف پتاسیم در خاک بستگی دارد که درک این دینامیک، سبب بهبود مدیریت حاصلخیزی خاک می‌شود. استفاده از رابطه کمیت- شدت پتاسیم و پارامترهای آن یکی از روش‌های تعیین وضعیت پتاسیم خاک جهت مدیریت مصرف کود می‌باشد. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی وضعیت شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم و پارامترهای روابط کمیت- شدت پتاسیم جهت تعیین علل پایین بودن پتاسیم برگ توتون در شمال‌غرب ایران انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: نمونه خاک از 30 مزرعه توتون منطقه شمال‌غرب کشور تهیه شد. آزمایشات جذب به صورت بچ در سری غلظتی پتاسیم 200-0 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر در محلول 01/0 مولار کلریدکلسیم انجام گرفت. پارامترهای کمیت- شدت از جمله ظرفیت بافری بالقوه پتاسیم، نسبت فعالیت پتاسیم در نقطه تعادل، انرژی آزاد تبادلی پتاسیم، مقدار پتاسیم به سهولت قابل‌تبادل و مقدار پتاسیم به سختی قابل‌تبادل از منحنی‌های کمیت- شدت محاسبه شد. پتاسیم محلول، تبادلی، غیرتبادلی و ساختمانی در نمونه‌های خاک اندازه‌گیری شد و روابط آن با پارامترهای کمیت-شدت و خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک بررسی گردید.
یافته: میانگین پتاسیم محلول، تبادلی و غیرتبادلی خاک‌ها به ترتیب 23 (با دامنه 10 تا 118)، 207 (با دامنه تغییر 64 تا 511) و 569 (با دامنه 443 تا 690) میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم بود. شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم به غیر از پتاسیم محلول با همدیگر و با درصد رس خاک همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری داشتند. میانگین ظرفیت بافری پتاسیم برابر 2/10 سانتی‌مول بر کیلوگرم بر مجذور مول بر لیتر، میانگین نسبت فعالیت پتاسیم در نقطه تعادل برابر 00476/0 مجذول مول بر لیتر، میانگین انرژی آزاد تبادلی پتاسیم برابر 2/3364- کالری بر مول، میانگین پتاسیم به سهولت قابل‌تبادل برابر 0320/0 سانتی‌مول بر کیلوگرم و میانگین پتاسیم به سختی قابل‌تبادل برابر 46/0 سانتی‌مول بر کیلوگرم بود. رابطه پتاسیم محلول با پتاسیم تبادلی مثبت (r=0.42*) و با مقادیر pH (r = -0.37*) و درصد کربنات کلسیم معادل (r = -0.41*) منفی بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: همبستگی معنی‌دار مقادیر پتاسیم تبادلی با پتاسیم محلول و درصد رس در خاک‌های مورد مطالعه، ممکن است به دلیل تخلیه پتاسیم تبادلی در خاک‌ها باشد که سبب کاهش میانگین پتاسیم در برگ توتون منطقه مورد مطالعه شده است. همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار بین مقادیر شکل‌های تبادلی، غیرتبادلی و ساختمانی پتاسیم نشان داد که بخشی از شکل‌های غیرتبادلی و ساختمانی پتاسیم می‌تواند طی دوره رشد، برای گیاه قابل‌استفاده باشد. برای ارتقاء غلظت پتاسیم برگ منطقه، لازم است خصوصیات خاک از جمله درصد و نوع رس با استفاده از روابط کمیت- شدت در توصیه کودی پتاسیم لحاظ گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Potassium Forms and Quantity- Intensity Parameters of Soil Potassium and its Correlation with Some Soil Properties of Tobacco-growing Reign in Northwest of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmatollah Ranjbar 1
  • Ebrahim Sepehr 2
  • Abbas Samadi 3
  • Mohsen Barin 4
  • Behnam Dovlati 5
1 PhD Student of Soil Science Department, Agricultural faculty, Urmia University, Urmia.
2 Assosiate Prof. of Soil Science Department, Agricultural faculty, Urmia university, Urmia
3 Prof.of Soil Science department, Agricultural faculty, Urmia university, Urmia
4 Assist. Prof. of Soil Science Department, Agricultural faculty, Urmia university, Urmia
5 Assist. Prof. Soil Science Department, Agricultural faculty, Urmia university, Urmia
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives: potassium (K) plays a vital role in increasing the tobacco yield and controlling important quality parameters such as leaf combustibility. The forms of soil K in order of their availability for plants are soil soluble, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and structural potassium. Plant availability of soil K is controlled by dynamic interactions among its different K pools in soil that understanding of these dynamics leads to management of soil fertility. Quantity-Intensity (Q/I) curves of potassium and Q/I parameters provide general information about soil K availability and fertilizers management. This investigation was conducted to study the K forms status and its relationship with Q/I parameters in tobacco cultivated soil in the northwest of Iran.
Materials and Methods: Sorption isotherm was constructed in the laboratory by equilibrating and shaking 2.5 g soil with 25 ml of 0.01 M CaCl2 containing 0-200 mg K L-1 for 24 h. After equilibrium, remaining concentration of K measured and K Quantity-Intensity (Q/I) curves and their parameters such as K buffering capacity (PBCK), K activity ratio at equilibrium (AReK), energy of exchange (EK), the Gapon selectivity coefficient (KG), initial equilibrium concentration of solution K (EKC), readily exchangeable K (∆K0), specific K sites (KX), readily exchangeable K (∆K0) and specific K sites (Kx) were calculated. The soluble, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and structural K forms in 30 soil samples taken from tobacco-growing soils in north-west of Iran, were measured. Soil potassium forms relationships with each other, Q/I parameters and soil physical and chemical characteristics were investigated.
Results: The mean of soluble, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and structural K forms in soil samples were 23 (ranged from 10 to 118), 207 (ranged from 64 to 511), 569 (ranged from 443 to 690) mg kg-1, respectively. There were significant correlations among K forms except for solution K. The clay values had a significant and positive correlation with each of K forms except solution K values. The means of PBCK, AReK, ∆K0 and KX values were 10.2 cmol kg-1/(mol L-1)0.5, 0.00476 (mol L-1)0.5, 0.032 and 0.46 cmol kg-1, respectively. The EK values for the check treatments ranged from -5151 to -2128 cal mol-1. The relationship of Kso with exchangeable K was positive (r= 0.42*), but its relationship with pH (r = -0.37*) and CCE (r=0.41*) was significantly negative.
Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between solution K and exchangeable K values as well as between exchangeable K and clay values presumably because of exchangeable K depletion in soils that caused to decrease K concentration on tobacco leaf in studied reign. The correlation among exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K, and Kstr values indicated that a part of the non-exchangeable and structural potassium, could be available for the plant during the growing season. It is necessary that consider soil properties such as clay content and clay type by using quantity-intensity relations for potassium fertilizer recommendation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil potassium
  • Tobacco
  • Quantity – intensity relationship
  • Potassium depletion
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