تعیین دور آبیاری بهینه و ارزیابی سازگاری گیاه مریم گلی سهندی (Salvia sahendica .L) به تنش آبی در فضای سبز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد یادگار امام خمینی(ره)، شهرری، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: یکی از گیاهانی که در فضای سبز مراکز صنعتی از دیر باز کاربرد گسترده‌ای داشته است چمن می-باشد. این گیاه نیاز آبی بالایی دارد. به دلیل کم آبی‌های سالیان اخیر از برخی گیاهان دارویی به عنوان گیاه پوششی جهت کاربرد در فضاهای سبز استفاده می‌گردد، زیرا این گیاهان علاوه بر مقاومت به شرایط نامساعد محیطی از نیاز آبی، تغذیه و نگهداری پائینی نسبت به چمن جهت کاربرد در فضای سبز برخوردار هستند. لیکن سازگاری و عملکرد آنها در هر منطقه به عوامل مختلفی از جمله اقلیم منطقه، شرایط فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک، کیفیت آب، میزان و فواصل آبیاری و نوع گیاه بستگی دارد. بدین جهت تحقیق حاضر با هدف کلی ارزیابی سازگاری گیاه مریم گلی سهندی به تنش آبی و تعیین رژیم آبیاری مناسب جهت کاربرد آن در فضاهای سبز مراکز صنعتی طرح‌ریزی شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش در مزرعه تحقیقاتی شرکت فولاد مبارکه اصفهان انجام گرفت. بعد از آماده‌سازی مزرعه مطالعاتی، تیمارهای تحقیق شامل پنج دور آبیاری (2 (شاهد)، 4، 8، 12 و 16روزه) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و2 گیاه مریم گلی سهندی و چمن (جهت مقایسه) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی در قالب طرح آماری کرت‌های خرد شده با طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی در کرت‌هایی به ابعاد 5/1×5/1 متر در 3 تکرار در سال 1395 اجرا گردید. پس از استقرار گیاهان، تاثیر تنش آبیاری از طریق تیمارهای دور آبیاری اعمال شد. در پایان فصل تابستان از گیاهان کشت شده (برگ، ریشه و کل گیاه) نمونه‌برداری انجام گردید و برخی شاخص‌های رشد گیاهان در سه تکرار اندازه‌گیری شد. مقایسه میانگین‌ها به روش LSD با استفاده از نرم‌افزار MSTAT-C انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد، اثر دور آبیاری، گونه و نیز اثر متقابل آنها در سطح آماری 1 درصد بر تمامی صفات مورفولوژی و فیزیولوژی مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بود. بر اساس نتایج مقایسه میانگین‌ها، افزایش دور آبیاری از 2 به 4، 8 و 16 روزه باعث کاهش معنی‌دار صفات مورد مطالعه در گیاه چمن گردید (pr<0.05). کمترین میزان درصد زنده‌مانی(5%)، سطح پوشش (5%)، امتیازدهی دیداری (10%)، سطح برگ (4%)، میزان نسبی آب برگ (9%) و شاخص کلروفیل (3%) در این گیاه در دور 16 روزه نسبت به تیمار شاهد مشاهده شد. لیکن کاهش این صفات در گیاه مریم گلی سهندی تا دور 16 روزه معنی‌دار نبود (pr>0.05). در این گیاه فقط دور آبیاری 16 روزه با سایر دورهای آبیاری کاهش معنی‌دار نشان داد که به ترتیب کمترین میزان برای صفات ذکر شده (60%)، (67%)، (66%)، (80%)، (68%) و (59%) می‌باشد. در گیاه چمن، میزان پرولین، نشت الکترولیت، نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به اندام هوایی و بلندترین طول ریشه با افزایش دور آبیاری به بیش از 2 روز در سطوح مختلف آبیاری افزایش معنی‌دار (pr<0.05) داشت. این صفات در دور آبیاری 16 روزه در این گیاه به ترتیب 7/4، 2/4، 3/2 و 6/2 برابر تیمار شاهد افزایش یافت. برای گیاه مریم گلی سهندی این افزایش تا دور 16 روزه معنی‌دار نبود و در دور 16 روزه این صفات به ترتیب 2/1، 2، 7/1 و 9/1 برابر تیمار شاهد افزایش نشان داد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به عدم کاهش معنی‌دار (pr>0.05) شاخص‌های مورد مطالعه برای گیاه مریم گلی سهندی در دورهای 4، 8 و 12 نسبت به تیمار شاهد، می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که رژیم آبیاری بهینه برای استفاده از این گیاه در فضاهای سبز، دور آبیاری 12 روز یکبار می‌باشد که در مقایسه با گیاه چمن با دور بهینه آبیاری 2روز یکبار باعث صرفه‌جویی درمصرف منابع محدود آبیاری می‌گردد. از این رو استفاده از گیاه مریم گلی سهندی جهت کاربرد در فضای سبز و جایگزین چمن در منطقه مورد مطالعه و سایر مناطق مشابه با اطمینان 95 درصد پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the appropriate irrigation interval and evaluation of the compatibility of Salvia sahendica L. plant with water stress in landscape

نویسنده [English]

  • kamran parvanak
Assistant Prof., Dept. of Agriculture, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH), Share-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran,
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives: The grass is one of the plants that is used widely in the landscape of industrial centers. This plant has a high water requirement. So, because of low precipitations in recent years, from some medicinal plants are applied in landscape. Because, these plants not only resist to adverse environmental conditions, but also have low water requirement, nutrition and low maintenance cost in comparison to grass. However, in each region their adaptation and yield depends on various factors such as climatic conditions, physical and chemical conditions of the soil, water quality, irrigation intervals and type of plant. For this reason, the present study was designed to evaluate the compatibility of Salvia sahendica plant to water stress and determining the appropriate irrigation regime to apply as landscapes in industrial centers.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted at the research farm of Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company. After field preparation, the research treatments including five irrigation interval (2 (control), 4, 8, 12 and 16 days) as the main factor and two plant including grass and Salvia sahendica as subsidary factors was carried out in a Split plot design with randomized complete block design with 2 × 2 meters plotted in 3 replications in 1395. After the establishment of plants, the water stress was applied by irrigation intervals. At the end of the summer, the plants (leaf, root and whole plant) were harvested and plant growth factors were measured in three replications. The means comparison conducted by LSD method using MSTAT-C software.
Results: The results of analysis of variance showed that the effects of irrigation interval, species and their interaction were statistically significant at 1% on all morphological and physiological traits. Based on the results of the means comparison, by increasing the irrigation interval from 2 to 4, 8 and 16 days, a significant reduction in the studied traits were observed in the grass (pr<0.05). while, the lowest percentage of viability (5%), surface coverage (5%), visual scoring (10%), leaf area index (4%), relative water content of leaves (9%) and chlorophyll index (3%) was observed in the 16-day interval as compared with control plant, but the reduction of these traits in the Salvia sahendica was not significant to 16 days (pr>0.05). In this plant, the lowest records of named traits were (60%), (67%), (66%), (80%), (68%) and (59%) respectively in 16 days interval. In the grass, proline content, electrolyte leakage, the ratio of root to shoot dry weight and the root highest length were significantly increased by increasing irrigation intervals to more than 2 days (pr <0.05). These traits increased 4.7, 4.2, 2.3 and 2.6 times respectively in the 16-days irrigation interval in this plant. In Salvia sahendica, this parameters was not afftected to 16-days interval. In 16-days interval, these traits increased by 1.2, 2, 1.7 and 1.9 times respectively.
Conclusion: By considering that non-significant decreases were observed (pr>0.05) in the studied parameters of Salvia sahendica up to 12-days interval in comparison with control, it can be concluded that an optimal irrigation regime of this plant in order to use in the landscape is irrigation interval of 12-days. It saves water resources in comparison with grass. According to results, the use of Salvia sahendica is recommended for use as landscape and alternative of grass in the studied area and in other similar areas at confidence level of 95%.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Viability
  • Visual scoring
  • Relative water content of leaves
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Proline
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