کاهش هدررفت خاک و آب از طریق تحریک باکتری‌های خاک‌زی در مقیاس کرت‌های کوچک آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم محیط زیست، پژوهشکده مطالعات دریاچه ارومیه، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و عضو هسته پژوهشی اگروهیدرولوژی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرّس، مازندران، نور

3 استادیار گروه زیست‌شناسی دریا، دانشگاه تربیت مدرّس، دانشکده علوم دریایی، مازندران، نور.

4 استاد گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زه‌کشی و رئیس هسته پژوهشی اگروهیدرولوژی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرّس، دانشکده کشاورزی، تهران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: دست‌یابی به توسعه‌ی پایدار بدون حفاظت از منابع خاک و آب و کاهش تخریب اراضی امکان‌پذیر نمی‌باشد. از طرفی در اراضی با تراکم محدود پوشش گیاهی، پوسته‌های زیستی خاک تشکیل شده در اثر فعالیّت ریزموجودات خاک‌زی نقش مهمی در حفظ و بهبود شرایط پایداری خاک دارند. از آن‌جایی‌که پوسته‌های زیستی در اراضی تخریب شده توسعه مناسبی نداشته، لذا جدیداً احیاء این پوسته‌ها با ایجاد شرایط مناسب برای افزایش فعالیت ریزموجودات خاک‌زی از طریق کاربرد فناوری‌های نوین زیستی از قبیل کاربرد محرّک‌های غذایی ریزموجودات خاک‌زی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. البته، اثرگذاری سریع و پایدار راه‌کارهای حفاظتی خاک از معیارهای مهم در انتخاب اقدامات مدیریتی بوده که در این راستا پژوهش حاضر با هدف کارایی‌سنجی یک نوع تزریق ماده‌ی محرّک غذایی باکتری‌های خاک‌زی با نام B4 به‌عنون افزودنی کاملاً زیستی در کاهش هدررفت خاک و رواناب در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و مقیاس کرت‌های کوچک فرسایشی برنامه‌ریزی شد.
مواد و روش: خاک مورد مطالعه از دامنه‌های حساس به فرسایش و تخریب‌شده منطقه‌ی مرزن‌آباد-کندلوس واقع در حوزه‌ی آبخیز چالوس‌رود و غرب استان مازندران تهیه شده و پس از آماده‌سازی آن، کرت‌های آزمایش (به ابعاد 5/0 متر و حجم کلی 125/0 مترمکعب) مطابق با لایه‌بندی، دانه‌بندی و جرم مخصوص ظاهری منطقه مادری خاک با بافت سیلتی-رسی-لومی پر شدند. ماده‌ی محرّک غذایی (B4) نیز به‌ترتیب با ترکیب 15، چهار و پنج گرم بر لیتر استات کلسیم، عصاره‌ی مخمر و دکستروز آماده شده و از طریق اسپری سطحی روی کرت‌ها تزریق شد. برای انجام آزمایش مذکور، دو تیمار تزریق B4 و شاهد با سه تکرار مد نظر قرار گرفت. در نهایت پس از 15 روز، مطابق با ویژگی باران‌های خیلی فرساینده منطقه مادری، شبیه‌سازی باران به مدّت 100 دقیقه و شدّت 50 میلی‌متر در ساعت در محل آزمایشگاه شبیه‌ساز باران و فرسایش دانشگاه تربیّت مدرس روی کرت‌های آزمایش به‌تعداد شش عدد و با طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام و مؤلفه‌های هدررفت خاک و رواناب اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: مقایسه آماری نتایج نشان داد که تزریق B4 با تحریک تکثیر باکتری‌های خاک‌زی و در نتیجه‌ی اثرگذاری باکتری‌ها روی برخی ویژگی‌های خاک باعث بهبود مؤلفه‌های هدررفت خاک و رواناب شد که در این میان میزان اثرگذاری آن روی کاهش هدررفت خاک بیش‌تر از رواناب سطحی بود. به‌گونه‌ای که زمان شروع و زمان تا اوج رواناب در تیمار شاهد (بدون تزریق) به‌ترتیب از 83/24 به 22/49 دقیقه و از 66/78 به 66/92 دقیقه در تیمار تزریق B4 به‌صورت معنی‌دار (05/0p <) افزایش یافت. هم‌چنین حجم و مقدار اوج رواناب، هدررفت خاک و غلظت رسوب در تیمار تزریق B4 با کاهش معنی‌دار (01/0p <) و به‌ترتیب 88، 92، 95 و 35 درصدی نسبت به تیمار شاهد، 66/275 و 66/18 میلی‌لیتر و 49/0 گرم و 79/1 گرم بر لیتر اندازه‌گیری شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر، احیاء و غنی‌سازی پوسته‌های زیستی خاک در اراضی تخریب‌شده و بدون پوشش گیاهی از طریق تحریک و افزایش جمعیّت ریزموجودات خاک‌زی با استفاده از محرّک‌های غذایی ریزموجودات از قبیل B4 به‌عنوان راه‌کاری زیستی، کارا و زودبازده در حفاظت منابع خاک و آب ارزیابی شد. هرچند انجام پژوهش‌های تکمیلی در راستای دستیابی به راهکارهای مطمئن با کاربرد سایر محرّک‌های میکروبی و ارزیابی ماندگاری آن‌های در طی بارش‌های متوالی و در طول زمان ضروری می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reducing soil and water loss through stimulation of degraded biological soil crusts bacteria in experimental small plots

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Kheirfam 1
  • Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi 2
  • Behrouz Zarei Darki 3
  • Mehdi Homaee 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Urmia Lake Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Member of Agrohydrology Research Core, Tarbiat Modares University.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology Marine, Faculty of Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University
4 Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Head of Agrohydrology Research Core, Tarbiat Modares University.
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Achieving to sustainable development is not possible without soil and water resources conservation and land degradation reducing. On the other hand, in the low density-vegetation lands, biological soil crusts induced by soil micro-organisms' activities play an important role in conserving and improving of soil stability. However, in degraded lands, biological soil crusts are less developed. Thus, recently, biological soil crusts restoration by providing the appropriate conditions for increasing soil micro-organisms' activities have been further considered through the new biotechnologies applying such as soil micro-organisms stimulants. However, the quick and sustainable effectiveness of applying soil conservation strategies is the most important criteria in the selection of managerial practices. Hence, this study was planned to assess performance of a soil bacterial stimulant nutrient (named B4) as completely bio-amendment in reducing soil loss and runoff at laboratory and small plots conditions.
Materials and methods: In the study, the experimental plots were filled by collected soil of degraded and erosion-prone area of Marzanabad-Kandelus region based on the layering, grain size and bulk density of the native soil area. The solution with 15 g calcium acetate l-1 distilled water (dw), four g yeast extract l-1 dw, and five g dextrose l-1 dw was prepared as B4 stimulant nutrient. Then the B4 was spraied on plots. To this end, two treatments of B4 injection and control with three replications were considered. After 15 days, in the Rain and Erosion Simulation Laboratory of Tarbiat Modares University, the simulated rainfall was carried out with during of 100 min and intensity of 50 mm h-1 according to high-erosive rainfall of the native area. Then, the soil loss and runoff components were measured.
Results: Statistical comparison of results indicated that injection of B4 stimulant nutrient improved the soil loss and runoff components through stimulate proliferation of soil bacteria and its adhesion and productivity properties. The start time and time to peak of runoff at the control plots (without injection) were increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 24.83 to 49.22 min and from 78.66 to 92.66 min at the stimulant nutrient plots, respectively. As well as, volume and peak of runoff, soil loss and sediment concentration at the stimulant nutrient plots were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) and about 88, 92, 95 and 35%, respectively in compared to control. So that, the volume and peak of runoff, soil loss and sediment concentration at the stimulant nutrient treatment were measured about 275.66 and 18.66 mm, 0.49 g and 1.79 g l-1, respectively.
Conclusion: According to our results, the restoration and enhancement of biological soil crusts in low density-vegetation and degraded lands through stimulating and increasing population of soil micro-organisms induced by stimulant nutrient founded as an efficient, quick and bio-strategy to conserve soil and water resources. However, further researches are required to achieve reliable strategies by using other microbial stimulants and evaluating their durability under consecutive precipitation and time passing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil amendments
  • Soil and water conservation
  • Soil bio-amend
  • Soil biotechnology
  • Soil micro-organisms
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