ارزیابی تاثیر کاربرد نانوهیدروکسی‌آپاتیت بر تثبیت کادمیم در یک خاک آهکی آلوده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی ، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد ، گروه علوم خاک،دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کادمیم یکی از متداول‌ترین آلاینده‌های زیست ‌محیطی است که می‌تواند اثر نامطلوبی بر روی همه ارگانیسم‌های زنده داشته باشد. از این رو یک روش پالایشی صحیح برای کاهش فراهمی فلز در خاک مورد نیاز است. از آنجا که نانومواد واکنش‌پذیری و ظرفیت جذب سطحی بیشتری نسبت به همان مواد در اندازه معمولی دارند، از این رو با گسترش کاربردهای مختلف نانوفناوری در زندگی بشر، ارزیابی کارایی نانوذرات در پالایش خاک‌های آلوده مورد توجه محققان قرار گرفت. با این حال تا کنون در مورد امکان تثبیت فلزات سنگین بوسیله نانوهیدروکسی‌آپاتیت (nHAP) در خاک‌های آهکی گزارشی منتشر نشده است. به این منظور آزمایش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر کاربرد nHAP بر تثبیت کادمیم در یک خاک آهکی آلوده طراحی شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل با 3 تکرار انجام شد. ابتدا خاک در سه سطح کادمیم (صفر، 20 و 40 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک با استفاده از نمک کلرید کادمیم) آلوده و به مدت یک ماه در رطوبت 70 % ظرفیت زراعی نگهداری شد. سپس nHAP در سه سطح (صفر، 25/0 و 1 درصد) به نمونه‌های خاک اضافه شد. پس از 30 روز خواباندن، گونه‌بندی کادمیم با استفاده از عصاره‌گیری متوالی و قابلیت جذب کادمیم در خاک با عصاره‌گیر DTPA مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای بررسی تاثیر nHAP در شدت پیوند کادمیم با خاک و تحرک کادمیم در خاک از نمایه تفکیک کاهش یافته (IR) و فاکتور تحرک استفاده گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد nHAP غلظت کادمیم را در بخش تبادلی و آلی کاهش و در بخش کربناتی بطور معنی‌داری افزایش داد اما بر مقدار کادمیم در بخش باقی‌مانده تاثیر معنی‌داری نداشت. نتایج استخراج کادمیم با DTPA نشان داد که در سطح 40 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم کادمیم، کاربرد هر دو سطح nHAP غلظت کادمیم قابل جذب را بطور معنی‌داری کاهش داد. با افزایش مقدار مصرفی nHAP، کارایی آن در کاهش فراهمی کادمیم افزایش یافت. البته مقدار کاهش کادمیم قابل فراهم در خاک چشمگیر نبود. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که با افزایش سطوح nHAP و کادمیم، مقدار IR افزایش یافت که افزایش IR بیانگر کاهش قابلیت استفاده و تحرک کادمیم در خاک است. کاربرد nHAP سبب کاهش معنی‌دار فاکتور تحرک یعنی موجب کاهش تحرک و خطر زیست‌ محیطی کادمیم گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده می توان بیان داشت که اگرچه کاربرد nHAP تا حدودی سبب تثبیت و کاهش تحرک کادمیم در خاک گردید، اما به نظر می‌رسد تاثیر nHAP بر کاهش فراهمی کادمیم چشمگیر نبود. لذا باید در مورد امکان استفاده این ماده در سطح گسترده و اقتصادی بودن کاربرد آن بررسی‌های بیشتر صورت پذیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Influence of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Application on the Cadmium Immobilization in Contaminated Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Farzanegan 1
  • Ali reza Astaraei 2
  • Amir Fotovat 3
  • amir lakzian 4
1 Soil Science, Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate professor of soil science. Department of Soil Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Iran.
3 Professor of Soil Science. Department of Soil Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Iran.
4 Professor of Soil Science. Department of Soil Science, Isfahan University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Background and Objective: Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common soil pollutants that can adversely affect all living organisms Therefore, proper remediation is necessary to reduce metal availability in soil. Owing to nano-material with higher reactivity and adsorption capacity than ordinary-sized materials, with the development of various nanotechnology applications in human life, the evaluation of the effectiveness of nanoparticles in remediation of polluted soils has been considered by researchers. However up to now it has been not reported information about heavy metal immobilization by nHAP in calcareous soils. This experiment was conducted to investigate efficiency of nHAP on stabilization of Cd in polluted soil.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications. First the soils were contaminated with Cd at three levels (0, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 using CdCl2) and then were incubated for one month in 70% field capacity. Then nHAP was applied to soils at three levels (0, 0.25 and 1%). After 30 days incubation, Cd was fractionated by sequential extraction and analyzed for DTPA extractable form. To quantify the effect of nHAP in binding intensity and mobility of loaded Cd, the reduced partition index (IR) and mobility factor were used.
Results: The results of sequential extraction showed that nHAP application significantly reduced concentration of Cd in the exchangeable and organic fraction and increased in the carbonate fraction. But there was no change for Cd in the residual fraction. The results of extraction with DTPA experiment indicated that at 40 mg kg-1 of Cd both of the levels of nHAP decreased DTPA-extractable Cd, but at 20 mg kg-1 of Cd, addition of nHAP at 0.25 % level did not significantly reduced concentration of DTPA extractable Cd. It was also found that efficiency of nHAP increased when Cd loading quantities to soils increased. However the role of nHAP in the reducing of bioavailability was not very large. The results also illustrated that the IR value increased when Cd and nHAP loading quantities to soils increased, demonstrating a decrease in the mobility of Cd in mobile fractions. Application of nHAP caused reduction of the mobility factor of Cd indicating decreasing availability and environmental risk of Cd.
Conclusion: On the basis of results obtained in this study, it can be stated that although the nHAP addition has somewhat stabilized and reduced the mobility of Cd in the soil, it seems that the effect of nHAP on decreasing of Cd was not considerable. Therefore, further studies should be carried out more on the feasibility of application of nHAP at the widespread level and the economic status of its application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cadmium
  • fractionation
  • Nano-Hydroxyapatite
  • Immobilization
  • soil
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