اثر تخریب جنگل در موقعیت های مختلف شیب بر روی کیفیت و تحول خاک در غرب استان کردستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه کردستان

2 گروه علوم و مهدسی خاک، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کیفیت خاک یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل در ارزیابی مدیریت خاک می‌باشد لذا شناخت همه خصوصیات کیفیت خاک از قبیل فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژیکی ضروری می‌باشد .تخریب جنگل و تغییر کاربری اراضی بر تغییرات ویژگی‌های خاک تاثیر گذاشته و منجر به کاهش کیفیت خاک می‌شود. علاوه بر این، خصوصیات خاک به موقعیت توپوگرافی نیز بستگی دارد. منطقه مریوان در استان کردستان جزو مناطق جنگلی زاگرس می‌باشد که با توجه به افزایش جمعیت در چند دهه اخیر و افزایش نیاز به غذا مورد تهدید قرار گرفته و بخش‌های از آن تحت کشت زراعت رفته است. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی اثر تخریب جنگل و جایگاه شیب بر روی کیفیت و تحول خاک در غرب استان کردستان می‌باشد.
مواد و روش: 8 نیمرخ خاک در جایگاه‌های مختلف (شانه‌شیب، پشته‌شیب، پای‌شیب و پنجه‌شیب) دو شیب تپه مجاور هم، تحت کاربری‌های زراعت و جنگل (با شرایط یکسان) حفر و تشریح شدند. علاوه بر این در هر کاربری در هر موقعیت شیب، 3 نمونه خاک از عمق 20-0 سانتی‌متری برداشت شد. ویژگی‌های بافت خاک، شن ریز، کربن آلی، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، رطوبت ظرفیت مزرعه‌ای، رطوبت نقطه پژمردگی دائم، هدایت الکتریکی، اسیدیته، کربنات کلسیم معادل، ازت کل، فسفر در دسترس، پتاسیم در دسترس، نفوذپذیری، شدت تنفس میکروبی، تخلخل، نسبت جذب سطحی سدیم (SAR)، رطوبت قابل استفاده و فرسایش‌پذیری خاک اندازه‌گیری و محاسبه شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که موقعیت‌های پایین شیب (پنجه‌شیب و پای‌شیب) دارای مقادیر بیشتر رس، کربن آلی، رطوبت قابل دسترس، شن‌ریز، سیلت، ازت کل، فسفر قابل دسترس، پتاسیم قابل دسترس، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، نفوذپذیری و شدت تنفس میکروبی و مقادیر کمتر کربنات کلسیم معادل، هدایت الکتریکی، فرسایش‌پذیری، pH و SAR در مقایسه با موقعیت‌های بالای شیب بودند. خاک‌های تشکیل شده در موقعیت‌های پایین شیب دارای عمق و تحول بیشتری در مقایسه با موقعیت‌های بالای شیب بودند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد دو کاربری (جنگل و زراعت) از لحاظ مقدار جرم مخصوص ظاهری، تخلخل، سلیت، رس، کربنات کلسیم معادل، شن ریز، pH، ماده آلی، شدت تنفس میکروبی، نفوذپذیری، نیتروژن کل، فرسایش‌پذیری و رطوبت قابل دسترس دارای اختلاف معنی‌داری بودند و تغییر کاربری اراضی جنگلی به زراعی منجر به تخریب مالی‌سولزها شده است. بنابراین، خصوصیات خاک وابسته به موقعیت شیب و نوع کاربری بوده و این عوامل، ویژگی‌ها و تحول خاک را تحت تأثیر قرار داده‌اند.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج نشان داد تخریب جنگل در منطقه مریوان منجر کاهش کیفیت خاک از طریق کاهش معنی‌دار کربن آلی، تنفس میکروبی، ازت کل، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی، تخلخل، نفوذپذیری و رطوبت قابل استفاده و افزایش معنی‌دار جرم مخصوص ظاهری، اسیدیته، SAR، شن‌ریز، فرسایش‌پذیری و سیلت شده است. همچنین تخریب جنگل و تغییر کاربری اراضی به‌دلیل کشت و کار منجر به کاهش مقدار ماده آلی و تخریب ساختمان خاک افق مالیک شده است. لذا افق مالیک به اکریک تبدیل شده و رده‌های انتی‌سولز و اینسپتی‌سولز در کاربری زراعت تشکیل شده‌اند. علاوه بر این نتایج نشان داد که موقعیت‌های مختلف شیب بر مقدار جرم مخصوص ظاهری، شن، سلیت، رس، نفوذپذیری، فرسایش‌پذیری، رطوبت قابل دسترس، pH، ماده آلی، کربنات کلسیم معادل، شدت تنفس میکروبی، نیتروژن، فسفر، ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی و پتاسیم خاک موثر بوده و دارای اختلاف معنی داری هستند. این نتایج نشان می دهد مدیریت کنونی اراضی مورد مطالعه، کیفیت خاک را متأثر ساخته و منجر به تخریب اراضی می گردد. بنابراین، حفاظت خاک مناطق شیب‌دار با ممانعت از جنگل‌تراشی در جنگل‌های مریوان و استفاده از اراضی مطابق با قابلیت‌شان جهت حفظ کیفیت خاک و اراضی ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the effect of forest degradation in different slope positions on soil quality and evolution in west of Kurdistan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • serve moradi 1
  • kamal nabiollahi 1
  • Sayed mohamad taher Hissaini 2

1 Soil science and engineering, university of Kurdistan

2 Soil science and Engineering, university of Kurdistan

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Soil quality is one of the most important factors to assess soil management. Therefore, recognition of all soil quality properties such as physical, chemical and biological is essential. Forest degradation and land use change effect on soil properties variability and led to decrease soil quality factors on soil quality. Moreover, soil characteristics also are related to slope position. The region of Marivan in Kurdistan province is one of the forested areas of Zagros which in recent decades, due to population growth and the increased need for food, has been threatened and some parts are now cultivated. The aim of this research is assessing the effect of forest degradation and slope position on soil quality and evolution in west of Kurdistan Province.
Materials and Methods: Eight soil profiles in different slope position (shoulder, back slope, foot slope and toe slope) of two adjacent hill slope, under land uses of cropland and forest (uniform condition) were dug and described. Moreover, in each land use three soil samples were taken from depth 0-20 cm in each slope position. Properties of soil texture, bulk density, particle density, fine sand, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, field capacity moisture, permanent wilting point moisture, electrical conductivity, pH, carbonate calcium equivalent, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potash infiltration rate, microbial respiration rate, porosity, available moisture sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and erodibility were measured and computed.
Results: The results showed low slope positions (toe slope and foot slope) had higher contents of clay, organic carbon, available moisture, fine sand, silt, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potassium, CEC and microbial respiration rate and lower contents of electrical conductivity, soil erodibility, pH and SAR compared to high slope positions. Soils formed in low slope positions had higher depth and evolution compared to high slope positions. The results also showed two land uses (cropland and forest) in relation to bulk density, porosity, silt, clay, carbonate calcium equivalent, fine sand, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial respiration rate, infiltration, soil erodibility and available moisture had significant difference and land use change of forest land to cropland has been led to degradation of Mollisols. Therefore, soil properties are dependent to slope position and land use kind and these factors have affected soil properties and evolution.
Conclusion: The results showed forest degradation has led to decrease of soil quality using significant decreasing of organic carbon, microbial respiration, total nitrogen, CEC, porosity, infiltration and available moisture and significant increasing of bulk density, pH, SAR, fine sand, soil erodibility, and silt. Forest degradation and land use change also due to cultivation led to decrease organic carbon content and soil structure degradation of Mollic horizon. Therefore, Mollic horizon has converted to Ochric horizon and Entisols and Inceptisols have formed in cropland land use. Moreover, the results showed different slope position effect on bulk density, sand, silt, clay, infiltration, erodibility, available water, pH, organic carbon, carbonate calcium equivalent, microbial respiration rate, nitrogen, phosphorous, CEC and potassium and have significant difference. These results show current management of studied land effect on soil quality and led to land degradation. Therefore, soil conservation of steep area using prevention of deforestation in Marivan forests and use of land based on their capability to conserve of soil and land quality is essential.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forest soils
  • Marivan
  • Mollisols
  • Land use change
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