ارزیابی اثر همزمان کم‌آبیاری بخشی ریشه و افزودن ورمی‌کمپوست بر برخی پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی ذرت دانه‌ای سینگل کراس 704

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

4 گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: استفاده از روش‌های حفظ ذخیره رطوبت خاک همراه با اعمال شیوه‌های مدیریت آبیاری نقش مهمی در سازگاری با مساله کم‌آبی و بحران آب خواهد داشت. لذا هدف از این پژوهش بررسی اثر همزمان اعمال کم‌آبیاری بخشی ریشه و ورمی‌کمپوست بر میزان آب مصرفی، عملکرد، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت و محتوای نسبی آب برگ (RWC) گیاه ذرت در منطقه ساری می‌باشد.
مواد و رو‌ش‌ها: این آزمایش در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی به روش کرت یکبار خرد شده و در سه تکرار طی دو فصل زراعی در سال‌های 1393 و 1394 به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تیمار آبیاری کامل و کود شیمیایی (FIT1) به عنوان تیمار شاهد، تیمار آبیاری کامل و 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ 5/5 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار (FIT2)، تیمار آبیاری کامل و 11 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار (FIT3)، تیمار کم آبیاری تنظیم شده در سطح 65 درصد و کود شیمیایی (DIT1)، تیمار کم‌آبیاری تنظیم شده در سطح 65 درصد و 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ 5/5 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار (DIT2)، تیمار کم‌آبیاری تنظیم شده در سطح 65 درصد و 11 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار (DIT3)، تیمار کم‌آبیاری بخشی ریشه در سطح 65 درصد و کود شیمیایی (PRD1)، تیمار کم‌آبیاری بخشی ریشه در سطح 65 درصد و 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ 5/5 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار (PRD2)، تیمار کم‌آبیاری بخشی ریشه در سطح 65 درصد و 11 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار (PRD3) بود. به منظور تعیین مقدار رطوبت خاک از رطوبت‌سنج TDR مدل TRIME-FM استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد اثر تیمارهای آبیاری بر همه‌ی پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی در نظر گرفته شده در این تحقیق معنی‌دار بود. اثر تیمارهای کودی بر همه‌ی پارامترها به جز RWC معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین میزان عملکرد، برای تیمار FIT، در دو سال 1393 و 1394 به ترتیب برابر با 8 و 2/8 تن در هکتار به دست آمد. اعمال تیمار PRD باعث افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد، عملکرد بیولوژیک و RWC در مقایسه با تیمار DI شد. استفاده از ورمی‌کمپوست به صورت تلفیقی با کود شیمیایی باعث افزایش عملکرد، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت شد. اعمال ورمی‌کمپوست باعث افزایش RWC در مقایسه با تیمار کود شیمیایی شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: در راستای سازگاری با مساله کم‌آبی، اعمال تیمار PRD2 توصیه می‌شود زیرا نسبت به کاربرد جداگانه PRD و ورمی-کمپوست، باعث صرفه‌جویی بیشتر در مصرف آب (3/26 درصدی) شد و با تیمار FIT2 اختلاف معنی‌داری از نظر عملکرد و سایر پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی ذرت نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of simultaneous effect of partial root zone drying and vermicompost on some physiological characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) SC704

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Shahnazari 2

چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives: Using soil moisture storage techniques, simultaneously with irrigation management practices play an important role in coping with the problem of water shortage and water crisis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effect of partial root zone drying and vermicompost on the water use, yield, biological yield, harvest index and leaf relative water content (RWC) of maize in sari.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was arranged in split plots based on complete randomized block with 3 replications were carried out during years 2015 to 2016. The experiment treatments were full irrigation and chemical fertilizer (FIT1) as control treatments, full irrigation and 50% chemical fertilizer+ 5.5 tons per ha of vermicompost (FIT2), Full irrigation and 11 tons per ha of vermicompost (FIT3), deficit Irrigation and chemical fertilizer (DIT1), deficit irrigation and 50% chemical fertilizer+ 5.5 tons per ha of vermicompost (DIT2), deficit irrigation and 11 tons per ha of vermicompost (DIT3), partial root zone drying irrigation and chemical fertilizer (PRD1), partial root zone drying irrigation and 50% chemical fertilizer+ 5.5 tons per ha of vermicompost (PRD2), partial root zone drying irrigation and 11 tons per ha of vermicompost (PRD3); while in DI and PRD 65% water of FI was irrigated. TDR access tubes were installed in the soil profile to measure soil water content.
Results: The results showed that the effect of irrigation treatments was significant on all physiological parameters considered in this study. The effect of fertilizer treatments was significant on all parameters except RWC. The highest yield was attained in FIT2 treatment, equal with 8 and 8.2 tons per ha in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The PRD treatments was caused to significant increase in yield, biological yield and RWC compared with the DI treatment. The use of vermicompost in combination with chemical fertilizer increased yield, biological yield and harvest index. Vermicompost increased RWC was compared to chemical fertilizer.
Conclusion: simultaneous use of PRD and vermicompost was saved more water (26.3 %) than using them separately. Compared with FIT2 treatment was no significant difference in the values of yield and other physiological parameters of maize. Therefore, PRD2 is recommended to compatibility with the problem of water shortage. Conclusion: simultaneous use of PRD and vermicompost was saved more water (26.3 %) than using them separately. Compared with FIT2 treatment was no significant difference in the values of yield and other physiological parameters of maize. Therefore, PRD2 is recommended to compatibility with the problem of water shortage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Yield
  • Harvest index
  • leaf relative water content
  • maize
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