کاربرد اسیدهای آلی و معدنی بر آزادسازی عناصر غذایی در خاکهای آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه زنجان

2 استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه زنجان

3 استادیار گروه کشاورزی دانشگاه پیام نور

4 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: تاثیر کاربرد اسیدهای آلی و معدنی در خاک‌های آهکی ایران به طور کامل بررسی نشده است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر کاربرد اسیدهای آلی استیک، سیتریک و اگزالیک اسید و اسیدهای معدنی سولفوریک و فسفریک بر مقدار pH و EC خاک و همچنین رهاسازی عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاهان در محلول خاک می‌باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای بررسی رهاسازی عناصر غذایی توسط اسیدهای آلی و معدنی از دو نمونه خاک آهکی با بافت لومی استفاده شد. عصاره‌گیری از خاک‌ها با محلول‌های اسیدهای سیتریک، اگزالیک، استیک، سولفوریک و فسفریک با غلظت‌های 1، 5 و 10 میلی‌مولار (25 میلی لیتر محلول و 10 گرم خاک) و آب مقطر به عنوان شاهد به مدت یک ساعت انجام شد. مقدار pH و قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی محلول‌ها بلافاصله پس از عصاره‌گیری اندازه‌گیری شد. غلظت نیترات، آمونیوم، فسفر، پتاسیم، کلسیم، منیزیم، آهن، روی، مس و منگنز در عصاره اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: به‌طور کلی با کاربرد اسیدها مقدار pH محلول خاک پس از گذشت یک ساعت بین 03/0 تا 66/1 واحد کاهش نشان داد.. تیمار اسید فسفریک با غلظت 10 میلی‌مولار در هر دو نمونه خاک بیشترین کاهش pH را نشان داد. تیمارهای مختلف اسیدهای آلی و معدنی بر مقدار فسفر؛ پتاسیم، کلسیم، منیزیم، نیترات، آمونیوم و عناصر کم مصرف استخراج شده از خاک‌ها تاثیر مثبت معنی‌دار داشت. بیشترین غلظت فسفر(بجز عصاره‌گیر اسید فسفریک)، کلسیم، منیزیم و آمونیوم استخراج شده به ترتیب با مقادیر 23/4، 2797،1078 و 2/67 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک و همچنین بیشترین روی و مس استخراج شده با مقادیر 61 و 74 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم خاک در تیمار اسید استیک 10 میلی‌مولار در خاک 2 دیده شد. بیشترین مقدار پتاسیم و نیترات آزاد شده به ترتیب با مقادیر 673، 247 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک از تیمار 10 میلی‌مولار اسید فسفریک در خاک 2 به دست آمد. بیشترین مقدار آهن و منگنز استخراج شده نیز به ترتیب با مقادیر 5420 و 10320 میکروگرم بر کیلوگرم خاک در تیمار اسید سیتریک 10 میلی‌مولار در خاک 2 دیده شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که کاربرد اسیدهای آلی و معدنی در خاک بسته به نوع اسید باعث رهاسازی برخی عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاهان در زمان کوتاهی (یک ساعت) در محلول خاک می‌شود. همچنین از بین اسیدهای به کار رفته اسید فسفریک بیشترین تاثیر را در کاهش مقدار پی اچ خاک داشت.
نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که کاربرد اسیدهای آلی و معدنی در خاک بسته به نوع اسید باعث رهاسازی برخی عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاهان در زمان کوتاهی (یک ساعت) در محلول خاک می‌شود. همچنین از بین اسیدهای به کار رفته اسید فسفریک بیشترین تاثیر را در کاهش مقدار پی اچ خاک داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of organic and inorganic acids on the release of nutrients in calcareous soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Hassani 2
  • Mehdi Nourzadeh Haddad 3

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Effect of organic and inorganic acids in calcareous soils of Iran has not been properly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids of acetic, citric and oxalic acid and mineral acids of sulfuric and phosphoric acid on the soil pH and EC and release of essential nutrients in soil solution.
Materials and methods: To investigate for releasing nutrient by organic and inorganic acids, the two calcareous loamy soil samples were used. Extraction of soil with solutions of citric, acetic, oxalic, sulfuric and phosphoric acid in concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 mM (25 ml of solution and 10 grams of soil) and deionized water as control for 1 hours was done. The pH value and electrical conductivity of solutions were measured immediately after extraction. Concentrations of potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, nitrate, iron, zinc, copper and manganese was measured in the obtained extract.
Results: In general, the pH value of the soil extractions decreased after one hour between 0.03 to 1.66 unit. The pH reduction was almost the same in both soils. The pH value was reduced with increasing acid concentration. Phosphoric acid treatment with 10 mM concentration in both soil samples showed the greatest decrease in pH. Various concentrations of organic and inorganic acids had a significant positive effect on released phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, ammonium and micronutrients. The highest released P, Ca, Mg and ammonium with amount of 4.23, 1078, 2797 and 67.2 mg per kg of soil respectively and also the highest amount of Zn and Cu with amount of 61 and 74 µg per kg of soil was seen in 10 mM concentration of acetic acid in soil 2. The highest released K and nitrate with amount of 673 and 247 mg per kg of soil respectively was seen in 10 mM concentration of phosphoric acid in soil 2. The highest released Fe and Mn with amount of 5420 and 10320 µg per kg of soil respectively was seen in 10 mM concentration of citric acid in soil 2.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the use of organic and inorganic acids in the soil, depend on acid type caused the release of essential nutrients in short time (1 hour) in the soil solution. Also phosphoric acid has the greatest effect on soil pH reduction.
The results of this study showed that the use of organic and inorganic acids in the soil, depend on acid type caused the release of essential nutrients in short time (1 hour) in the soil solution. Also phosphoric acid has the greatest effect on soil pH reduction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • acetic acid
  • citric acid
  • oxalic acid
  • phosphoric acid
  • sulfuric acid
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