امکان‌سنجی کاهش هدررفت خاک با استفاده از زغال زیستی حاصل از پسماند کارخانه‌های صنایع لبنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرّس

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: امروزه کاربرد تبدیلی پسماندهای صنعتی با کم‌ترین اثرات سوء بر محیط زیست و کاربرد سودمند آن در سایر زمینه‌ها به‌عنوان راه‌کاری اساسی برای مدیریت حجم انبوهی از پسماندهای صنعتی مطرح شده است. در این راستا تبدیل و کاربرد مجدد پسماندهای کارخانه‌های لبنی به‌سبب حجم تولید بالا و گستره‌ متراکم آن‌ها می‌تواند راه‌کاری در راستای دست‌یابی به توسعه پایدار محسوب شود. حال آن‌که تا کنون کاربرد مستقیم و یا شکل کاربردی آن در مقوله حفاظت خاک گزارش نشده است. برهمین اساس پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبدیل پسماندهای کارخانه صنایع لبنی به افزودنی‌های خاک به‌صورت زغال زیستی با هدف کاربرد در علوم حفاظت خاک در راستای مهار فرسایش خاک در شرایط آزمایشگاهی برنامه‌ریزی شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای اجرای پژوهش، مقداری پسماند کارخانه صنایع غذایی کاله آمل پس از انتقال به آزمایشگاه و بررسی ویژگی‌های کیفی آن، تحت دمای 300 تا 350 درجه سانتی‌گراد به زغال زیستی تبدیل و در سه سطح 400، 800 و 1200 گرم بر مترمربع در کرت‌های کوچک فرسایشی با ابعاد طول، عرض و ارتفاع 50 سانتی‌متری پرشده با خاک حساس به فرسایش منطقه مرزن آباد مازندران استفاده شد. به‌همین منظور، کرت‌های فرسایشی مطالعاتی در سطوح مختلف تیمار و پس از گذشت 35 روز تحت باران شبیه‌سازی شده با دو شدت 50 و 90 میلی‌متر بر ساعت در آزمایشگاه شبیه‌ساز باران و فرسایش دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس قرار گرفت. نهایتاً مقادیر غلظت رسوب طی بازه زمانی شبیه‌سازی و پس از شروع رواناب اندازه‌گیری و بر طبق آن میزان فرسایش خاک نیز محاسبه شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاصل از آزمایش‌ها نشان داد که بیش‌ترین میزان فرسایش خاک در تیمار شاهد رخ داده است، به‌صورتی که میزان غلظت رسوب در کل بازه زمانی در تیمارهای 400، 800 و 1200 گرم بر متر مربع از خاک‌پوش زغال زیستی در شدت بارندگی 50 میلی‌متر بر ساعت به‌ترتیب 47، 52 و 49 درصد و در شدت بارندگی 90 میلی‌متر بر ساعت، 36، 51 و 54 درصد با سطح اطمینان 99 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت. هم‌چنین میزان فرسایش خاک در سطوح مصرفی 400، 800 و 1200 گرم بر متر مربع از افزودنی زغال زیستی به‌ترتیب 76، 83 و 81 درصد در شدت بارندگی 50 میلی‌متر بر ساعت و 75، 82 و 84 درصد در شدت بارندگی 90 میلی‌متر بر ساعت نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش معنی‌دار (01/0 > p) داشته است.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج به‌دست آمده از پژوهش حاکی از تأثیر مثبت زغال زیستی حاصل از پسماندهای صنایع غذایی روی کاهش غلطت رسوب و مهار فرسایش خاک بود و لذا مدیریت پسماندهای مزبور از طریق تبدیل آن‌ها به زغال زیستی و با هدف حفاظت خاک پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Feasibility of Reducing Soil Loss using Biochar Produced from Dairy Factory Waste

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Ghavimi Panah 2
  • Habibollah Younesi 2

1 Tarbiat Modares University

2 Tarbiat Modares University

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Today, conversion of industrial wastes using methods with the least environmental detrimental effects and profitable application is supposed as a fundamental solution to manage huge quantity of waste material produced in different industries. In this regard, conversion and reuse of hugely and intensive extension of produced dairy factory waste are possible solutions in order to achieve sustainable development. However, the direct or applied application of industrial wastes for soil conservation has not been reported yet. Accordingly, the present study was planned to assess the feasibility of industrial wastes produced biochar in soil erosion control under laboratorial conditions.
Materials and methods: In order to conduct the present study, some industrial wastes of the Kaleh Amol Dairy Factory were examined for chemical properties. It was then converted to biochar under temperature of 300 to 350 °C and applied for soil conservation in three levels of 400, 800 and 1200 g m-2 on small experimental plots filled by erosion prone soil of Marzanabad Region in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. The plots were subjected to rainfall simulation with intensities of 50 and 90 mm h-1 after a span time of 35 days on biochar application in the Rainfall and Erosion Laboratory of Tarbiat Modares University. Study rain were simulated based on intensity-duration-frequency relationships developed for the station at the vicinity of the soil origin. Ultimately, sediment concentrations were measured during simulation and just after commencement of runoff and the soil erosion was consequently calculated.
Results: The results of the present experiments under laboratorial conditions showed that the maximum soil erosion occurred in control plots. So that, the sediment concentrations for treated plots with 400, 800 and 1200 g m-2 of biochar were 47, 52 and 49 % for rain intensity of 50 mm h-1, and 36, 51 and 54 % for rain intensity of 90 mm h-1 of those recorded for control plots at confidence level of 99 %, respectively. The soil erosion rates for the same treatments were also significantly (P< 1%) lower as 76, 83 and 81% and 75, 82 and 84 % for rain intensities of 50 and 90 mm h-1 of those recorded for control plots, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggested a positive effect of application of biochar produced from industrial wastes of dairy factory on reduction of sediment concentration and soil erosion. The conversion of aforesaid industrial wastes to biochar is therefore recommended for soil conservation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • Rainfall simulation
  • Sediment yield
  • Soil and water conservation
  • Soil erosion
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