مقایسه زیتوده ریزریشه، جمعیت کرم‌های خاکی و نماتدهای خاکزی در خاک سطحی توده‌های طبیعی و دست‌کاشت جنگلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: به دلیل تخریب و کاهش سطح جنگل‌ها، جنگل‌کاری یک مساًله ضروری در حال و آینده بوده و ارزیابی جنگل‌کاری-های انجام شده، نقش مهمی در ایجاد جنگل‌هایی با کیفیت و کمیت بهتر خواهد داشت. خاک بخش مهمی از اکوسیستم جنگل به حساب می‌آید که تحت شرایط عرصه‌ای یکسان، گونه‌های مختلف درختی با تفاوت در زیتوده رو‌زمینی و زیر‌‌‌زمینی، اثرات مختلفی بر ویژگی‌های آن دارند. مطالعه‌ و شناخت مشخصه‌های زیستی، شاخص‌های مناسب برای ارزیابی کیفیت و سلامت خاک به شمار می-روند. در پژوهش حاضر، اثر پوشش‌های جنگلی طبیعی، جنگل‌کاری‌های پهن‌برگ و سوزنی‌برگ، بر تغییر‌پذیری زیتوده ریز‌ریشه‌ها، تعداد و زیتوده گروههای اکولوژیک کرم‌خاکی و فراوانی نماتدهای خاکزی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است.

مواد و روش‌ها: در هریک از پوشش‌های جنگلی مورد نظر شامل توده طبیعی ممرز- انجیلی و جنگل‌کاری‌های پهن‌برگ زبان‌گنجشک، افراپلت و سوزنی‌برگ کاج بروسیا و زربین، مستقر در حوزه چوب و کاغذ مازندران، تعداد 16 نمونه خاک از عمق 15-0 سانتی‌متری (خاک سطحی) برداشت شد. محتوی رطوبت، pH، کربن‌‌آلی، نیتروژن کل و مشخصه‌های زیستی خاک (زیتوده ریز‌ریشه‌، تعداد و زیتوده کرم‌های خاکی و فراوانی نماتدهای خاکزی) در آزمایشگاه مورد سنجش و اندازه‌گیری قرار گرفت.

یافته‌ها: تجزیه واریانس مقادیر مشخصه‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک حاکی از وجود تفاوت‌های آماری معنی‌دار در ارتباط با پوشش‌های جنگلی مختلف می‌باشد. بیشترین مقادیر مشخصه‌های رطوبت، کربن و نسبت کربن به نیتروژن خاک به جنگل‌کاری کاج بروسیا اختصاص داشته، در حالی که بالاترین مقادیر مشخصه‌های pH و نیتروژن در خاک تحت توده طبیعی ممرز- انجیلی مشاهده شد. مقادیر حداکثر زیتوده ریز‌ریشه‌ها (68/89 گرم بر مترمربع)، تعداد کرم‌های خاکی (81/1 تعداد بر مترمربع) و زیتوده کرم‌های خاکی (17/24 میلی‌گرم بر مترمربع) به توده طبیعی ممرز- انجیلی تعلق داشت. همچنین، بالاترین تعداد (43/1 تعداد بر مترمربع) و زیتوده (25/19 میلی‌گرم بر مترمربع) گروه اکولوژیک اپی‌ژئیک، در توده طبیعی ممرز- انجیلی و جنگل‌کاری زبان‌گنجشک مشاهده شد. در بین توده‌های جنگلی مورد بررسی، توده طبیعی ممرز- انجیلی بیشترین تعداد (37/0 تعداد بر مترمربع) و زیتوده (92/4 میلی‌گرم بر مترمربع) گروه اکولوژیک آنسئیک کرم‌های خاکی را به خود اختصاص داد. گروه اکولوژیک اندوژئیک در هیچ یک از توده‌های مورد بررسی یافت نشد. حداکثر تعداد نماتدهای خاکزی (37/603 تعداد بر متر مربع) در خاک توده طبیعی ممرز- انجیلی مشاهده شد. نتایج همبستگی حاکی از آن است که محتوی رطوبت و مشخصه‌های شیمیایی خاک اثر قابل توجهی بر تغییر‌پذیری هر یک از مشخصه‌های زیستی در سطح تیپ‌های پوششی مختلف دارند.

نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این پژوهش مؤید اثر قابل توجه پوشش‌های جنگلی طبیعی بر مشخصه‌های زیستی و کیفیت خاک می‌باشد. همچنین در مناطق جنگلی تخریب‌یافته شمال کشور، استقرار گونه درختی زبان‌گنجشک می‌تواند به عنوان گونه منتخب جهت بهبود شاخص‌های زیستی، حفظ کیفیت و سلامت خاک مدنظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of fine root biomass, earthworm's and nematodes populations in topsoil of natural forest and plantations

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Because of deforestation and reduction of forest areas, plantation is a vital issue for now and the future. The evaluation of planted species is very important to creation of forests with better quality and quantity in the future. Soils, as an important part of the ecosystems, are affected by tree species with differences aboveground and below ground biomass, under same field condition. Biological properties are good indices to assessment of soil quality and health. In this study the effects of different forest covers including natural forest, hardwoods and softwoods plantations, on variability of fine roots biomass, ecological group's earthworm's density/biomass and nematodes abundance were considered.

Materials and Methods: Soil samples were excavated in sixteen points from 0-15 cm (top soil)
depth, for each forest covers including Carpinus betulus (hornbeam) - Parrotia persica (iron wood) as a natural stand, Fraxinus excelsior (ash), Acer velutinum (maple) hardwoods and Pinus brutia (pine), Cupressus sempervirens (cypress) softwoods plantations, located in Wood and Paper Company of Mazandaran. Soil moisture, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen and biological indices (fine roots biomass, earthworm's density/biomass and nematodes abundance) were measured and recorded at the laboratory.

Results: ANOVA results for soil physico-chemical properties showed significant statistical differences related to forest covers. So that the highest values of soil moisture, organic carbon and C/N ratio were found under pine plantation. Also the higher values of soil pH and total nitrogen were detected in Carpinus betulus - Parrotia persica natural stand. Greater amounts of fine root biomass (89.68 g m-2), earthworm's density (1.81 n m-2)/biomass (24.17 mg m-2) and nematodes abundance (603.37 n m-2) were found in Carpinus betulus - Parrotia persica natural stand. Also maximum epigeic density (1.43 n m-2)/biomass (19.25 mg m-2), were found under Carpinus betulus - Parrotia persica natural stand and ash plantation. Higher anecic earthworm's density (0.37 n m-2)/biomass (4.92 mg m-2) recorded in Carpinus betulus - Parrotia persica natural stand. The endogeic species were not observed under different forest covers. Greater amounts of nematodes abundance (603.37 n m-2) were recorded in Carpinus betulus - Parrotia persica natural stand. The finding of correlation between biological indices and other studied properties indicating that biological characters are influenced by soil water content and chemistry under different forest covers.

Conclusions: The findings of this study are showing the considerable effect of natural forest covers on soil biological properties and quality. In addition, in degraded areas of northern Iran, planting of Fraxinus excelsior species can be considered due to improvement and conservation of soil biological indices, quality and health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • natural forest
  • plantation
  • soil chemical characters
  • Earthworm
  • nematode
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