ارزیابی و آنالیز حساسیت کمیت رواناب و سیستم زهکشی در حوضه شهری ساحلی با استفاده از مدل SWMM ( مطالعه موردی: بخشی از شهر بندرعباس)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه هرمزگان

2 دانشگاه تهرانٰ دانشکده محیط زیست-

3 دانشگاه تهران- دانشکده منابع طبیعی

4 دانشگاه هرمزگان- گروه جغرافیا

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: درحوزه‌های آبخیزشهری افزایش سطوح نفوذناپذیرکه به دلیل توسعه صورت می‌پذیرد منجر به افزایش حجم رواناب، دبی اوج و کاهش مقدار نفوذپذیری می‌شود. افزایش سطوح نفوذناپذیر سبب کاهش نفوذ جریان‌های زیرسطحی و جریان پایه و یا جریان هوای خشک درهر دو کانال طبیعی و بتنی می‌گردد. در منطقه شهری بندرعباس به‌دلیل عدم وجود ایستگاه هیدرومتری یا هر پایگاهی برای اندازه‌گیری و ثبت دبی سیلاب، تعیین دبی سیلاب و بررسی مشخصات آن اهمیت بسزایی دارد. هدف اصلی این مطالعه، بررسی وضعیت سیستم جمع‌آوری آب‌های سطحی بخشی از شهر با استفاده از مدل SWMM است. ضمن بررسی دبی سیلاب شهری، نقاط ضعف شبکه جمع‏آوری رواناب سطحی شهر و و پارامترهای حساس در مدل نیز تعیین می گردد.
مواد و روش‌ها: در ابتدا برای شبیه‌سازی رواناب و مشخص نمودن نقاط حساس به آب‌گرفتگی از مدل SWMM استفاده شد. از شاخص‌های ناش- ساتکلیف (NS) و ضریب تعیین(R2) برای واسنجی و اعتبارسنجی دبی سیلاب مدل ‌در پنج واقعه بارندگی در تاریخ‌های 30/10/1392، 23/12/1392، 17/10/1392، 4/10/1394 و13/10/1394 استفاده شد. عمق و سرعت رواناب در خروجی منطقه مورد به کمک دستگاه مولینه اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین برای تعیین نقاط حساس به آب‌گرفتگی شهر بندرعباس از روش اندازه‌گیری صحرایی و به کمک اشل اندازه‌گیری شد. به‌منظور بررسی آنالیز حساسیت مدل، نه پارامتر موثر در مدل با استفاده از ضریب ناش- ساتکلیف(NS) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاصل از تحقیق نشان داد به ترتیب حساس‌ترین پارامترها ‌براساس ضریب NS شامل درصد اراضی نفوذ‌ناپذیر، ضریب زبری مانینگ درمناطق نفوذناپذیر، عرض معادل، ارتفاع ذخیره مناطق نفوذناپذیر، مساحت زیرحوضه، شیب زیرحوضه، درصد مناطق بدون ذخیره سطحی، ارتفاع ذخیره مناطق نفوذپذیر وضریب زبری مانینگ درمناطق نفوذپذیر می‌باشد. یافته-های به‌دست آمده از واسنجی مدل (به ترتیب واسنجی میانگین ضریب NS 75/0 وضریب R2 بین 83/0) نشان داد انطباق خوبی با داده‌های مشاهداتی دارد. نتایج اعتبارسنجی (میانگین ضریب NS 79/0 وضریب R2 بین 92/0) حاکی از دقت بالای مدل برای این منطقه می‌باشد. و مشخص شد علت آب‌گرفتگی در بعضی نقاط به‌دلیل نبود ظرفیت کافی آبگذرها است همچنین در بعضی نقاط با وجود ظرفیت کافی کانال که مدل نیزآن راتایید می‌کند آب‌گرفتگی وجود دارد، دلیل آن مربوط به انباشت زباله در این کانال‌ها است.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج ارزیابی مدل ‌SWMM نشان داد انطباق خوبی بین دبی رواناب شبیه‌سازی شده و مشاهده‌ای وجود دارد. با توجه به توانایی مدل در شبیه‌سازی رواناب هر زیرحوزه و تعیین نقاط حساس، استفاده از این مدل در مناطق شهری فاقد ایستگاه‌های هیدرومتری مناسب است. البته می‌بایست مدل حتما واسنجی گردد. بنابراین می‌توان از این مدل‌ها برای پیش‌بینی خطر آب-گرفتگی، طراحی و برآورد مقدار و هزینه زهکشی، مدیریت حوضه‌های ساحلی شهری و اولویت‌بندی مناطق برای رفع مشکل آبگرفتگی استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment and Sensitivity analysis quantity of runoff and drainage system in coastal urban area by SWMM Model (case study:part of Bandar Abbas city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Heydarzadeh 1
  • Ahmad Nohegar 2
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: In urban catchment because of developed conditions, the amount of impervious area increases which tends to increase runoff volume, peak discharge rate and decrease of infiltration volume. Increase in impervious surfaces to reduce the influence on subsurface flow and base flow or flow of dry air is both concrete and natural channel. In Bandar Abbas city measured and recorded flood in the region is particularly important because of the lack of hydrometric station or any base to measure and record flood. The main objective of the study was evaluate the status of surface water collection system is part of Bandar Abbas city by SWMM model. Addition to investigating flood, weaknesses identified in the network to collect surface runoff Moreover, the critical parameters in the model were determined.
Materials and methods: in the first for runoff simulation and to determine sensitive point flooded was used of SWMM Model. The coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash Sutcliffe (NS) for calibration and validation the model were used in five events 2014/01/19; 2015/03/11; 2015/12/25; 2014/01/07 and 2016/01/03. Depth and velocity measured in outlet basin by current meter gauging. Also to determine sensitive point flooded of Bandar Abbas city used of way measured field with help Eshel. In order to sensitivity analysis were evaluated nine effective parameters in the model using Nash-Sutcliffe (NS).
Results: The results showed that the most sensitive Respectively parameters based on the coefficient NS impervious present area, Roughness coefficient impervious area, width, Storage the depth of impervious areas, sub basin areas, slope percent, Storage areas percent without surface, Storage the depth of pervious areas and Roughness coefficient pervious area. The results obtained from model calibration (respectively calibration average coefficient NS 0.75 and coefficient R2 between 0.83) showed good agreement with the observed data. Validation results (mean coefficient NS 0.79 and coefficient R2 between 0.92) showed high accuracy for this area. It was found flooding in some areas was due to lack of adequate capacity conduit. However In some places model confirms that sufficient channel capacities, There were flooding due to the blockage Rubbish is in these places.
Conclusion: The results evaluate showed discharge runoff simulation and estimated SWMM model has a good compliance (adapt ate).According to the ability of each sub-basin runoff simulation model and determine the critical points of this model is suitable to be used in city areas without Hydrometrics station. But the model must be calibrated. So we can use this model to predict the risk of flooding, design and estimate the amount and cost of drainage, urban coastal watershed management and prioritizing fixing the problem areas to be flooded.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Storm
  • Urban runoff
  • Bandar Abbass
  • SWMM model
  • Channel flooded
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