عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Applicability of rockfill dams which has been made from large rock materials for purpose of flood detention reduces over the time because of siltation of pore system with sediment contained basin outflow. Since some of structures which were built with large rock materials should convey suspended sediment contained flows therefore routing process of these type flows have been investigated. The investigation around advection and dispersion of sediments particles through the large porous media usually is being done with breakthrough curve. This investigation is usually common for pollutants in rivers, sewer system and fine porous media. Previous researchers used from various techniques like numerical solving, parameter estimation and exact solution for solving of above mentioned problems. But unfortunately any general inquiry about suspended sediments was not accomplished yet. The exit breakthrough curves in many cases are asymmetrical and have Skewness in their falling limbs. Therefore some researchers after collecting the series of field data have discovered it and have presented a new model named transient storage model. Some investigators by considering Asymmetry in exit breakthrough curve have joined first order mass transfer equation with ADE equations and have extracted exact solutions with various primary and boundary conditions. The important criterion in this regard is to use them in similar primary and boundary conditions. Therefore in many cases the investigators are using from temporal and spatial moment technique according to experimental data series. By emphasis to above mentioned criteria and as regards to this fact that any coherent research in the investigation of behavior of suspended sediments through the large porous media were not accomplished yet therefore in this research tried to focus on it.
Materials and Methods: In this research by creating a laboratory model of large porous media and employing suspended sediment particles, tried to acquire an experimental data series in order to investigate longitudinal convection and dispersion phenomenon of suspended sediments through the large porous media. In this investigation by application of 2 media diameters, 4 inflow discharges and different hydraulic gradients over the media, the breakthrough curves of suspended sediments were extracted. The BC curves were extracted with water sampling from media end and then the samples have been passed from filter paper and dried. The concentration-time graphs were extracted after weighting of dried sediment particles. Also by using of parameter estimation technique for classical advection dispersion equation and temporal moments method, the longitudinal dispersion coefficients were extracted.
Results: The results showed that due to the inherent properties of exit breakthrough curve, the temporal moments method has a better estimation accuracy rather than classical advection dispersion equation. Additionally by dimensional analysis method a relationship has been acquired for estimation of longitudinal dispersion coefficient with average relative error of 30% which is reliable in sediment transport studies. Furthermore, the results of analysis of BC curves exhibited that the curve has an Asymmetric limbs in rising and falling stages which this observation is because of temporary storage of sediments and gradual release of them through the downstream flow.