بررسی میزان بهبودی شاخص‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در سال‌های پس از آتش سوزی در جنگل‌های شاخه زاد بلوط زاگرس در استان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

3 استادیار گروه منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: آتش سوزی مهم‌ترین عامل تخریب در اکوسیستم‌های جنگلی به شمار می‌رود که می‌تواند دگرگونی‌هایی را در ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در کوتاه مدت و بلند مدت ایجاد نماید. دگرگونی این ویژگی‌ها در خاک پس از آتش سوزی ممکن است پیامدهای منفی بر اکوسیستم جنگل حتی در بلند مدت داشته باشد. از آنجا که فراوانی رخدادهای آتش سوزی در جنگل-های زاگرس در سال‌های اخیر رو به افزایش بوده است، شناسایی اثرات بلند مدت و کوتاه مدت آتش سوزی بر ویژگی‌های خاک این جنگل‌ها به منظور جلوگیری از تخریب خاک بسیار ضروری می‌باشد. بنابراین در این پژوهش پاسخ کوتاه مدت و بلند مدت برخی از ویژگی‌های مهم فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک به آتش سوزی در جنگل‌های زاگرس بررسی شد تا زمان بهبودی تغییرات هریک از این ویژگی‌ها پس از آتش سوزی تعیین شود.
مواد و روش ها: برای بررسی زمان بهبودی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک پس از آتش سوزی، 3 منطقه در یک رویشگاه با فاصله حدود 1 کیلومتر با زمان‌های مختلف آتش سوزی شامل 1 سال، 3 سال و 10 سال انتخاب شد. به منظور کاهش خطای اثرات محیطی، در نزدیکترین همسایگی هر یک از آنها قطعات نسوخته شاهدی در نظر گرفته شد و هر منطقه با شاهد خود مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. سپس نمونه برداری به صورت تصادفی از عمق 0 تا 20 سانتی‌متری سطح خاک و با چهار تکرار انجام شد. در مجموع تعداد 24 نمونه ترکیبی از خاک برداشت شد. سپس ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک شامل:pH ، CEC، فسفر (P)، کربن آلی (OC)، نیتروژن (N)، EC، رطوبت اشباع خاک، جرم مخصوص ظاهری (BD) ، نسبت C:N، درصد اجزای تشکیل دهنده بافت خاک اندازه گیری شد. مقایسه ویژگی‌های اندازه گیری شده با آزمون تی (t test) در نرم افزار IBM SPSS انجام شد.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد کهpH ، CEC،EC و P خاک 1 سال بعد از آتش سوزی افزایش یافتند. همچنین در مدت 3 و 10 سال پس از آتش سوزیpH و CEC به سطح قبل از آتش سوزی بهبود یافتند اما EC و P خاک نسبت به شاهد کاهش معنادار یافتند. رطوبت اشباع خاک 1 سال بعد از آتش سوزی کاهش یافت، اما 3 و 10 سال بعد اختلاف معنی‌داری با سطح قبل از آتش سوزی نشان نداد. کربن آلی و نیتروژن خاک در تمامی زمان‌های مورد بررسی کاهش معنادار داشتند و حتی 10 سال بعد نیز به سطح قبل از آتش سوزی بهبود نیافتند. جرم مخصوص ظاهری 1 سال و 3 سال بعد از آتش سوزی کاهش یافت اما 10 سال بعد در مقایسه با شاهد تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد. نسبت C:N خاک، محتوای رس، شن و سیلت خاک در هیچ یک از زمان‌های پس از آتش سوزی تفاوت معناداری با شاهد نشان ندادند.
نتیجه گیری: نتیجه گیری شد که برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک ممکن است در کوتاه مدت بهبود یابند ولی برخی دیگر حتی پس از گذشت 10سال نیز، به سطح قبل از آتش سوزی بهبود نیابند. از میان این ویژگی‌ها مقدار ماده آلی خاک، نیتروژن و فسفر خاک از مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌هایی هستند که به زمان زیادی برای بهبودی پس از آتش سوزی نیاز دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The recovery of soil physical and chemical indices in years after fire in Zagros oak woodlands in Kermanshah Province.

نویسندگان [English]

  • mostafa sadeghifar 1
  • Ali Beheshti Aleagha 2
  • morteza pourreza 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate., Dept Of Soil Science and Engineering Razi University Of Kermanshah
2 Assistant Prof., Dept. Of Soil Science and Engineering Razi University Of Kermanshah
3 Assistant Prof., Dept. Of Natural Resources, Razi University Of Kermanshah
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Fire is the most important disturbance factor in forest ecosystems that can result in short and long term changes in soil physical and chemical properties. The changes of these properties in soil after fire may have negative effects on forest ecosystem even in long term. Since the fire frequency in Zagros forests have been increasing in the recent years, identifying the short term and long term effects of fire on soil properties in these forests is necessary to prevent soil degradation. Hence, in this study the short and long term responses of some physical and chemical properties of soil were investigated in order to identify the recovery time of these properties.
Materials and methods: In order to investigate the recovery time of soil physical and chemical properties after fire, 3 places in one site (distance about 1km from each other) in Zagros forests were selected with different times of fire occurrence including: 1, 3 and 10 years after fire. To decrease the environmental effects, we considered a separate unburnt control plot for each place in their adjacent and each place was compared with its own control plot. The soil sampling was performed randomly from the depth of 0-20 cm with 4 replications. A total of 24 composite soil samples were collected. Several soil physical and chemical properties were measured including: pH, EC, CEC, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), saturated water content, bulk density (BD), C/N ratio and soil texture. The statistical analysis of experiment data was performed using IBM SPSS software and mean comparison was done by t test method.
Results: The results showed that soil pH, CEC, EC, and P were significantly increased 1 year after fire. Soil pH and CEC were recovered to the pre-fire level in treatments 3 and 10 years after fire, while, EC and P were significantly decreased compared to their control. Saturate water of soil was decreased 1 year after fire however, no significant difference was observed compared to the pre-fire level after 3 and 10 years. Results indicated that OC and N were significantly decreased in all the times after fire and they were not recovered to the pre-fire level even after 10 years. BD was decreased 1 and 3 years after fire however, after 10 years no significant difference was observed compared to the control. No significant difference was in soil C/N ratio, clay, sand, and silt compared to the control in any times after fire.
Conclusion: It was concluded that some physical and chemical properties of soil may recovered in short time however; some others may not have recovered even 10 years after fire. Soil OC, N and P are of those properties that need long time to be recovered.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fire
  • Zagros forests
  • Physical –chemical properties
  • soil
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