ارزیابی ومقایسه فرآیند واجذب فلزات سنگین ازستون خاک طبیعی دراثرنفوذفاضلاب خام وامکان تراوش به آبهای زیرزمینی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، واحدعلوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران. و عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی سمنان

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، واحد علوم وتحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

چکیده:
سابقه و هدف: مطالعه فرآیندهای جذب و واجذب فلزات سنگین در خاک بمنظور ارزیابی چگونگی انتقال ویاتجمع فلزات وتعیین سرنوشت آنهادر لایه های خاک مسئله مهمی است که توجه بسیاری از محققین رابه خود جلب نموده است. توانایی انتقال فلزات تجمع یافته درلایه های خاک در اثر نفوذ جریانهای سطحی، بارش وحتی نفوذ فاضلابهای شهری وصنعتی در خاک از یک سو و واجذب فلزات از خاک بصورت محلول وانتقال آنها ونهایتا تراوش در آبهای زیرزمینی وآلوده نمودن آنها از سویی دیگر باعث شده تا اهمیت این مطالعات بیشترگردد. جریان فاضلاب خام در لایه های خاک نیز بواسطه فرآیند جذب و واجذب، باعث انتقال فلزات در ستون خاک می شود. هدف از این تحقیق که بصورت عملیات میدانی اجرا شد، بررسی وارزیابی فرآیند واجذب فلزات نیکل، روی وسرب موجود در خاک شهرک صنعتی سمنان است که در اثر نفوذ فاضلاب خام از خاک واجذب می شوند.
مواد و روشها: با نفوذ دادن فاضلاب خام این شهرک، تغییرات غلظت فلزات در لایه های خاک اندازه گیری شده و مورد بررسی و ارزیابی آماری قرار گرفت بنابراین برای نفوذ دادن فاضلاب در خاک یک چاهک نفوذ حفاری شد. نمونه برداری از خاک از عمقهای 20 تا 300 سانتیمتری زیر چاهک نفوذ انجام گردید. قبل از اینکه نفوذ انجام شود از لایه های زیرین چاهک نفوذ نمونه هایی تهیه و غلظت آنها بعنوان غلظت اولیه تعیین شد وپس از نفوذ نیز از همان عمقها مقادیر غلظت فلزات سنگین بعنوان غلظت ثانویه منظور شد. همچنین ارزیابی آماری برای مقایسه میانگین ها در نمونه های زوجی بمنظور تعیین اثر فرآیند واجذب این فلزات در کل ستون خاک انجام گردید و ازنرم افزار SPSS18 برای آنالیز داده ها استفاده شد.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد که برای هر سه فلز مورد مطالعه، جابجایی مرکز توده جرمی ماکزیمم به لایه های پایینتر اتفاق افتاده است. از ارزیابی آماری مشخص شد که در ستون خاک مورد بررسی، فرآیند واجذب فلز نیکل از خاک به محلول فاضلاب موثر بود در حالیکه فلزات روی وسرب چندان تحت تاثیر فرآیند واجذب قرار نگرفته اند. نسبت انتقال فلزات نیکل، روی وسرب بترتیب 136، 21 و10 بدست آمد. غلظت فلزات نیکل، روی وسرب در محلول فاضلاب در انتهای ستون خاک بترتیب 07/4، 95/1 و25/1 ppm محاسبه شد.
نتیجه گیری: نفوذ جریان فاضلاب باعث انتقال همه فلزات به لایه های پائینتردر ستون خاک میشود. فلز نیکل سریعتر از دو فلز دیگر به آبهای زیر زمینی تراوش می کند. رتبه بندی فلزات تحت تاثیرفرآیند واجذب وبراساس تحرکپذیری وهمچنین برای میزان تراوش به آبهای زیرزمینی بصورت (Ni>Zn>Pb) بدست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment and comparison of desorption process for heavy metals from natural soil column due to raw wastewater infiltration and its possible percolation into groundwater

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Salamatmanesh 1
  • Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri 2

1 Ph.D. student, Department of Environmental Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Environmental Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Abstract:
Background and objectives: The study of adsorption/desorption process for heavy metals in soil and the evaluation of how these are transferred or accumulated or what happens to them in layers of soil is an important issue, that has attracted the attention of many researchers. Ability of accumulated metal transfer in layers of soil, because of surface water infiltration, precipitation and even infiltration of municipal and industrial wastewater in soil on one hand, and desorption of metals from soil as solution and their transfer and percolation into groundwater, which causes groundwater pollution, on the other hand are among other reasons which add to the importance of these types of research. Flow of raw wastewater in layers of soil due to adsorption/desorption process leads to transport of metals in soil column. This research was carried out as field operations, the aim of which was to assess desorption process for metals Ni, Zn and Pb that exist in soil in Semnan industrial region due to raw wastewater infiltration that are released from soil.
Materials and methods: After the region raw wastewater infiltration, changes of concentration of metals in soil layers were measured and a statistical assessment was carried out with data, then for infiltration of wastewater to be applied in soil a pit was excavated. Soil sampling from the lower layers of the infiltration pit was done and Samples depth was from 20 to 300 cm in different layers. Before infiltration of wastewater, samples from the lower depths of the infiltration pit was obtained and used for determining the initial concentration in the soil layers (pre-infiltration) and after infiltration of wastewater, amount of heavy metals concentrations in the same depths are considered as post-infiltration data. A statistical assessment was carried out for evaluating the effect of desorption process (a paired-samples T-test is used for comparison of means) for each metal in the total soil column. This assessment was conducted by using statistical package SPSS18.
Results: The results indicate that, displacement in the center of mass happens from the top to the lower layers for the three metals. The statistical assessment indicated in this soil column, desorption process of Ni from soil to wastewater solution was effective, but for metals Zn and Pb was not. Transport ratio was calculated and for Ni, Zn and Pb were 136, 21 and 10, respectively. Dissolved concentration was calculated for Ni, Zn and Pb at the end of soil column were 4.07, 1.95 and 1.25 (ppm), respectively.
Conclusion: wastewater infiltration leads to transfer of all of metals towards more depths in soil column. Ni percolates into the groundwater much faster than other metals. The order obtained from metals affected by desorption process and amount of percolation into ground water was Ni>Zn>Pb.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • desorption
  • raw wastewater
  • soil column
  • transfer
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