اثر EDTA و اسیدسیتریک بر فعالیت‌های آنزیمی خاک واستخراج سرب توسط آفتاب‌گردان و خردل هندی از یک خاک آلوده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: استخراج گیاهی با استفاده از عوامل کی‌لیت کننده یکی از روش‌های پاکسازی خاک‌های آلوده به فلزات سنگین است که توجه‌ بسیاری را در دهه گذشته به خود جلب کرده است. به هرحال تا به امروز بیشترین توجه‌ به اثر عوامل کی‌لیت کننده بر حلالیت فلزات سنگین در خاک و جذب آنها به وسیله گیاه بوده است و کمتر به اثرات جانبی آنها بر محیط زیست خاک و موجودات زنده پرداخته شده است. فعالیت آنزیم‌های خاک می‌توانند شاخص‌های مناسبی برای بررسی بازگرداندن محیط زیست خاک بعد از فرآیند‌های پاکسازی مختلف باشند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر EDTA و اسیدسیتریک (CA) بر فعالیت‌های آنزیمی خاک و جذب سرب به وسیله دو گیاه آفتابگردان و خردل هندی بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با آرایش فاکتوریل و 3 تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام گرفت. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل عامل کی‌لیت کننده و نوع گیاه بودند. تیمارهای عامل کی‌لیت کننده شامل شاهد (بدون عامل کی‌لیت کننده یا سطح صفر)، EDTA3 و EDTA5 (3 و 5 میلی‌مول EDTA در هر کیلوگرم خاک خشک)، CA3 و CA5 (3 و 5 میلی‌مول CA در هر کیلوگرم خاک خشک) بودند. گیاهان مورد استفاده نیز شامل دو گیاه خردل هندی (Brassica juncea) و آفتاب‌گردان (Helianthus annus) بود. همچنین به منظور بررسی اثر سرب بر وزن خشک گیاه و فعالیت‌های آنزیمی یک تیمار بدون آلودگی سرب و بدون عامل کی‌لیت کننده (تیمار NP) نیز در نظر گرفته شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که EDTA نسبت به CA عامل کی‌لیت کننده موثرتری برای افزایش غلظت سرب فراهم خاک در این پژوهش بود. برخلاف انتظار افزودن CA به خاک موجب کاهش معنی‌دار غلظت سرب فراهم خاک نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. نتایج نشان داد بین دو کی‌لیت استفاده شده EDTA برای افزایش جذب سرب در اندام هوایی و CA برای افزایش جذب سرب در ریشه مناسب بود. بیشترین جذب سرب در ریشه (99/2 میلی‌گرم سرب در گلدان) توسط گیاه خردل هندی با کاربرد 5 میلی‌مول CA در کیلوگرم خاک مشاهده شد. همچنین بیشترین جذب سرب در اندام هوایی (74/1 میلی‌گرم سرب در گلدان) توسط گیاه خردل هندی با تیمار EDTA3 حاصل شد. نتایج نشان داد خاک تیمار شده با EDTA موجب اثر هورمسیس در فعالیت آنزیم‌های دهیدروژناز، فسفومونواستراز قلیایی و شاخص‌های GMea و TEA شد. تیمار EDTA5 موجب کاهش شاخص‌های GMea و TEA شد در حالی‌که تیمار EDTA3 موجب افزایش این شاخص‌ها در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شد. افزودن CA در هر دو سطح به خاک موجب افزایش معنی‌دار و قابل توجه فعالیت آنزیم‌های مورد مطالعه و همچنین شاخص‌های GMea و TEA نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: در تیمار EDTA3 جذب سرب اندام هوایی نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزایش پیدا کرد و همچنین به طور معنی‌داری شاخص‌های GMea و TEA در این تیمار در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد بهبود یافت. تیمار EDTA5 کارایی کمتری نسبت به تیمار EDTA3 در افزایش جذب سرب اندام هوایی داشت و شاخص‌های GMea و TEA را نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش داد. افزودن CA به خاک احتمالاً گزینه مناسب‌تری برای تثبیت گیاهی سرب در خاک مورد مطالعه از طریق تجمع آن در ریشه بود و توانست شاخص‌های GMea و TEA را به طور قابل توجهی نسبت به تیمار شاهد و تیمار NP افزایش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of EDTA and Citric acid on soil enzyme activities and phytoextraction of lead by sun flower and Indian mustard from a contaminated soil

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Chelate induced-phytoextraction is one of the methods for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils that have been attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. So far more attentions have been placed to effects of chelating agents on heavy metal solubility in soil and their uptake by plants, while there are less information about their side effects on soil environment and organisms. Soil enzyme activities can be suitable indicators to assess soil recovery after different remediation processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EDTA and Citric acid (CA) on soil enzyme activities as well as lead (Pb) uptake by Indian mustard and sun flower.
Material and Methods: This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications in greenhouse condition. The experimental factors were chelating agent treatments and plant types. The chelating agent treatments were including Control (without chelating agent), EDTA3 and EDTA5 (3 and 5 mmol EDTA per kg dry soil), CA3 and CA5 (3 and 5 mmol CA per kg dry soil). The plant species were Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sun flower (Helianthus annus). Also additional treatment (without Pb and without chelating agent) was considered to evaluate the effect of Pb on plant dry weight and soil enzymes activities (NP treatment).
Results: The results showed that EDTA was more effective than CA for increasing available Pb concentration. Unexpectedly, the addition of CA into soil significantly decreased available Pb concentration compared with the control treatment. The results showed that between two studied chelating agents, the EDTA was appropriate for increasing Pb uptake by shoots and CA was appropriate for increasing Pb uptake by roots. The highest Pb uptake by root (2.99 mg Pb per pot) was observed in Indian mustard using 5 mmol CA per kg dry soil. Also the highest Pb uptake by shoot (1.74 mg Pb per pot) was obtained by Indian mustard with EDTA3 treatment. The results showed that soil treated with EDTA led to hormesis effect on dehydrogenase and phosphomonoestrase activity, GMea and TEA indices. The EDTA5 treatment decreased GMea and TEA indices while, the EDTA3 treatment increased these indices compared with the control treatment. The addition of both concentration of CA into soil significantly and considerably increased the studied soil enzyme activities as well as GMea and TEA indices compared with the control treatment.
Conclusion: In EDTA3 treatment the shoot Pb uptake amount was higher than control treatment and, furthermore, it improved GMea and TEA indices. The EDTA5 treatment had lower efficiency than EDTA3 in increasing of shoot Pb uptake and also it decreased GMea and TEA indices compared with the control treatment. The addition of CA into soil was probably more suitable option for Pb phytostabilization in the studied soil and also considerably increased TEA and GMea indices compared with the control and NP treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chelating agents
  • TEA and GMea indices
  • available Pb concentration
  • phytoextraction
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