مقایسه‌ی تأثیر کود گاوی، ورمی کمپوست و آزولا بر ویژگی های شیمیایی و هیدرولیکیِ خاک شور-سدیمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران - پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی

2 دانشگاه تهران/ پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: شور و سدیمی شدن خاک‌ها یکی از عوامل تخریب اراضی، به‌ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک جهان به شمار می رود. ایران نیز در منطقه‌ای خشک و نیمه‌خشک قرار دارد و خاک های شور- سدیمی مناطق وسیعی از ایران را پوشانده اند. با توجه به اینکه خاک های شور- سدیمی خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژیکی نامطلوبی دارند که باعث کاهش جذب عناصر غذایی توسط گیاهان و درنهایت افت رشد و عملکرد آن ها می‌گردد. کاربرد اصلاح کننده ها ازجمله مواد آلی، اغلب می‌تواند راهکاری مناسب در جهت اصلاح و بهبود باروری خاک های شور- سدیمی باشد.
مواد و روش ها: در این پژوهش خاک شور-سدیمی شاهد از منطقه ی نظرآباد کرج جمع‌آوری و با سه سطح 1، 3 و 5 درصد از کودهای گاوی، ورمی کمپوست و آزولا (به عنوان اصلاح کننده ی آلی) مخلوط شد. سپس تیمارها به مدت پنج ماه تحت انکوباسیون در دمای 20درجه سلسیوس و رطوبت ظرفیت مزرعه قرار گرفتند. ویژگی‌های شیمیایی و فیزیکی اصلی خاک شاهد، کودها و نیز برخی ویژگی های شیمیایی و هیدرولیکی تیمارها قبل و بعد از انکوباسیون، مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند.
یافته ها: قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی خاک شاهد 13.09 دسی زیمنس بر متر و نسبت جذب سدیم آن 23.02 به دست آمد. بعد از دوره ی انکوباسیون، تیمار 5 درصد آزولا و ورمی‌کمپوست در پایین ترین سطح شوری قرار داشتند. کاهش پ هاش در تیمارها عمدتاً غیرمعنی دار بود. بیشترین دامنه تغییرات نسبت جذب سدیم مربوط به تیمار 5 درصد کود گاوی با تفاوت غالباً معنی‌دار نسبت به تمامی تیمارها بود. به استثنای حالت رطوبت اشباع، تفاوت چندانی میان مقدار رطوبت در یک مکش معین در تیمارهای مختلف مشاهده نشد. در طول دوره ی انکوباسیون میزان کل خلل و فرج در تمامی تیمارها، به طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. این کاهش در خلل و فرج متوسط در تمامی تیمارها به طور معنی‌دار مشاهده شد، بیشترین کاهش معنی‌دار در تیمار 5 درصد کود گاوی رخ داده است. این در حالی است که بعد از دوران انکوباسیون، بالاترین درصد خلل و فرج متوسط، در سطح 5 درصد کود ورمی‌کمپوست مشاهده شد. با توجه به اینکه بخش اعظم آب قابل دسترس گیاهان، در خلل و فرج متوسط قرار دارد، افزودن کود ورمی‌کمپوست در سطح 5 درصد به خاک شور-سدیمی می تواند شرایط بهینه ای را جهت رشد گیاه در خاک به وجود آورد.
نتیجه‌گیری: بعد از دوران انکوباسیون کاهش شوری و پ هاش و افزایش نسبت جذب سدیم در اکثر تیمارها دیده شد. در ادامه کاهش خلل و فرج درشت و متوسط مشاهده شد که کاهش ضریب آبگذری اشباع را در تیمارها در پی داشت. با توجه به یافته‌های مذکور، کود گاوی در سطح یک درصد تقریباً بی تأثیر بر روی ویژگی های خاک و در سطوح بالاتر سبب افت کیفیت و شرایط خاک شور-سدیمی از نظر ویژگی های فیزیکی و شیمیایی شد. در حالی که کود ورمی‌کمپوست در سطح پنج درصد با اصلاح مناسب خاک شور- سدیمی از نظر ویژگی های شیمیایی و هیدرولیکی، برتری خود را در بین این سه کود نشان داد و بعد آن، کود آزولا در سطح سه درصد در اولویت قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of The Effect of Cow Manure, Vermicompost and Azolla on the Chemical and Hydraulic Properties of Saline-Sodic Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parastoo Sharifi 1
  • mehdi shorafa 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi 2
1 Tehran university / College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
2 Tehran university/ College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Salinity and sodimization of soils are two factors of land degradation, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Iran is also located in an arid and semi-arid region, and saline-sodic soils cover large areas of Iran. Considering that saline-sodic soils have poor physical, chemical and biological properties that reduce the absorption of nutrients by plants and eventually decline in their growth and yield. The use of reformers, including organic matter, can often be a suitable solution for improving the fertility of saline-sodic soils.
Materials and Methods: In this study, saline-sodic soil was collected from Nazar-Abad area of Karaj and was mixed with three levels of 1, 3 and 5 percent of cow manure, vermicompost and Azolla (as Organic modifier). Then the treatments were incubated for 5 months at 20 ° C temprature and field capacity moisture. The chemical and physical properties of the control soil, fertilizers and some chemical and hydraulic properties of the treatments were evaluated before and after incubation.
Results: The electrical conductivity of the control soil was 13.09 dS / m and its sodium absorption ratio was 23.02. After incubation period, 5% Azolla and Vermicompost treatment are at the lowest salinity level. pH reductions in treatments were mostly non-significant. The highest range of changes in the sodium absorption ratio was related to 5% cow manure treatments with a significant difference relative to all treatments. Except for saturated moisture content, there was no significant difference in the amount of moisture in a given suction in different treatments. During the incubation period, there is a significant decrease in the total amount of porosity in all treatments. This decrease was significant in mean porosity in all treatments, the most significant decrease was observed in 5% cow manure treatment, and however 5% vermicompost treatment had the highest mean porosity (It should be noted that most of the water available to plants is in the mean porosity).
Conclusion: After incubation period, salinity and pH reduction and increasing of sodium absorption ratio were observed in most treatments. On the other hand, it reduced the coarse and mean porosity, resulting in a decrease in the saturation hydraulic conductivity in the treatments. According to the findings of this study, Vermicompost fertilizer at the level of 5%, with chemical and hydraulic correction of saline-sodic soil, showed its superiority among these three fertilizers, and then the Azolla at the level of 3% is given priority.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Incubation
  • Organic matter
  • Saline-Sodic Soil improvement
  • Soil properties
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