مقایسه کیفیت لاشبرگ سه گونه مرتعی و رابطه آن با برخی ویژگی‌های خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: علیرغم اهمیت کیفیت لاشبرگ در حفاظت و پایداری خاک، اصلاح خصوصیات شیمیایی آن، و افزایش تولید علوفه در اکوسیستم مرتع، مطالعات بسیار کمی درباره کیفیت لاشبرگ گونه‌های مرتعی و میزان تجزیه‌پذیری آنها‌ انجام شده است؛ عمده مطالعات انجام شده در خصوص کیفیت گیاهان، محدود به کیفیت علوفه و اندام‌های زنده گیاهی بوده است. هدف این پژوهش، اندازه‌گیری و مقایسه کیفیت لاشبرگ سه گونه مرتعیArtemisia aucheri ،Centaurea virgata و Scariola orientalis و بررسی رابطه آن با برخی از ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در مراتع حاج‌بیگی تربت حیدریه بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: نمونه‌برداری لاشبرگ به روش تصادفی- سیستماتیک بر روی سه ترانسکت به طول 200 متر با استفاده از پلات یک مترمربعی انجام شد. در هر پلات یک نمونه لاشبرگ از گونه‌های مورد نظر و همچنین یک نمونه خاک از عمق صفر تا 15 سانتی‌متری از پای بوته برداشت شد. پارامترهای مربوط به کیفیت لاشبرگ شامل فسفر (P)، پتاسیم (K)، کلسیم (Ca)، منیزیم (Mg)، فنل و لیگنین به روش استاندارد اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین، متغییرهای مربوط به ویژگی‌های خاک شامل بافت، درصد آهک، هدایت الکتریکی (EC)، وزن مخصوص ظاهری، واکنش خاک (pH)، فسفر (P)، پتاسیم (K) و کربن‌آلی خاک با روش‌های استاندارد اندازه‌گیری شد. برای مقایسه کیفیت لاشبرگ گونه‌ها از تجزیه واریانس یک‌طرفه و برای تفکیک میانگین‌های دارای تفاوت معنی‌دار، از آزمون دانکن استفاده شد. رابطه بین کیفیت لاشبرگ و خصوصیات خاک با استفاده از همبستگی پیرسون بررسی گردید.
یافته‌ها: بیشترین مقدار فسفر در لاشبرگ گونه C. virgata، بیشترین مقدار پتاسیم در لاشبرگ گونه A. aucheri و بیشترین مقدار لیگنین در لاشبرگ گونه S. orientalis بود. بیشترین مقدار فسفر، آهک، سیلت، رس، pH، کربن‌آلی و وزن مخصوص ظاهری در خاک پای گونه A. aucheri و بیشترین مقدار پتاسیم و شن در خاک پای گونه S. orientalis وجود داشت. میزان کلسیم لاشبرگ گونه A. aucheri با آهک خاک و مقدار منیزیم لاشبرگ با EC و pH خاک رابطه معنی‌دار داشت. میزان فسفر لاشبرگ در گونه C. virgata با pH خاک و همچنین مقدار پتاسیم لاشبرگ با درصد شن و سیلت خاک رابطه معنی‌دار داشت. میزان فسفر لاشبرگ گونه S. orientals با پتاسیم، کربن‌آلی، آهک، شن و سیلت خاک رابطه معنی‌دار داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: لیگنین و فنل ترکیبات شیمیایی ضد کیفیت در لاشبرگ می‌باشند. مقدار لیگنین در لاشبرگ سه گونه گیاهی یکسان بود ولی مقدار فنل در لاشبرگ گونه A. aucheri بیش از دو گونه دیگر بود. مقدار منیزیم و کلسیم هم در هر سه گونه یکسان بود ولی مقدار فسفر در C. virgate بیشتر از دو گونه دیگر بود. در این مطالعه، رابطه مشخصی بین ترکیبات شیمیایی لاشبرگ گونه‌های گیاهی و خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیای خاک پای بوته‌ها مشاهده نشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of plant litter quality in three range plant species and its relationship with soil characteristics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Sadeghi 1
  • Majid Ajorlo 1
  • Ali Shahriari 2
1 range and watershed management, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol
2 1Dept. of Soil Science and Engineering, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Despite the importance of litter quality in soil conservation and stability, improvement of soil chemical properties, and increasing forage production in the rangeland ecosystem, very few studies have been carried out on the litter quality of range plant species and most studies on plant quality are limited to forage quality of plants in rangeland. This study aimed to measure and compare the litter quality of three range plant species, i.e., Artemisia aucheri, Centaurea virgata and Scariola orientalis and its relationship with some physico-chemical characteristics of soils in Hajibeyggi rangeland, Torbat Heidarieh, eastern Iran.
Materials and Methods: Plant litter was sampled through systematic-randomize sampling method on three transects with a length of 200 meters and 1 m2 quadrat. One litter sample of plant species along with one soil sample was collected from 0-15 cm depth in each plot. Parameters related to litter quality including phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phenol and lignin were measured by standard methods. Also, soil characteristics including texture, lime percentage, EC, bulk density, pH, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and organic carbon were measured by standard methods. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the litter quality of species and Duncan test was used to separate means with significant difference. The relationship between litter quality and soil characteristics was investigated using Pearson correlation.
Results: The highest amount of P was in litter and dead materials of C. virgata, the highest amount of K was in A. aucheri and the highest amount of lignin was in S. orientalis. The highest amount of soil P, lime, silt, clay, clay+silt, pH, organic carbon and bulk density was found under A. aucheri canopy and the highest amount of K and gravel under S. orientalis canopy. The amount of calcium in A. aucheri litter was significantly correlated with soil lime, and its Mg content was related to soil EC and pH. The amount of P in C. virgata litter was significantly correlated with soil pH, and its K content was related with soil gravel, silt and clay + soil silt. The amount of P in S. orientalis litter was significantly correlated with soil K, organic carbon, lime, clay, silt, sand and silt.
Conclusion: Lignin and phenol are anti-quality chemical consitituents in plant litter and dead materials. Mean values of lignin in all plant species were similar, but the quantity of phenol in the litter of A. aucheri was higher than that in other two species. The amount of Mg and Ca were also similar in all plant species, but mean value of P in C. virgate was greater than that in other two species. It was not found clear relationships between litter quality and soil physico-chemical variables in this study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Artemisia aucheri
  • Centaurea virgata
  • Scariola orientalis
1.Aghbash Ghasemi, F., Jalali, Gh.A.,
Hosseini, V., Hosseini, C.M., and Berg,
Zh. 2015. Study of the relationship of
nutrients dynamics and chemical
composition of litter with decomposition
rate in late decomposition stages. J. Plant
Res. (Iran. J. Biol.). 4: 27. 715-727.
2.Ahmadkhany, R., Ariapour, A., Ahmadi,
A., and Ahmadkhany, Y. 2011.
Relationship between the elements in
plant Galium verum and soil
characteristics (Case example: Martyrs
Valley, West Azarbaijan province). Plant
Ecophysiology. 3: 9. 17-28.
3.Augusto, L., Ranger, J., Binkley, D., and
Rothe, A. 2002. Impact of several
common tree species oftemperate forest
on soil fertility. Annals of Forest Science,
59: 2. 233-254.
4.Burton, V., Zak, D.R., Denton, S.R., and
Spure, S.H. 1998. Forest ecology and
management, 3th ed. New York. 774p.
5.Comulo, S.C.M., Elliot, E.T., Valentine,
D.W., and Williams, S. 2001. Carbon and
nitrogen dynamics in elk winterranges.
J. Range Manag. 54: 400-408.
6.Ghezelseflou, N., Mahdavi, S.Kh., and
Hosseyni, A. 2012. Study on litter quality
two rangeland Species Artemisia sieberi
and Salsola dendroides and its effects on
soils properties in Til-Abad (Golestan
province). J. Plant Ecophysiol. 4: 1. 49-60.
7.Hajibegloo, A. 2007. Relationship
between litter quality and shoot of some
range species. Range management M.Sc.
Thesis, Tehran University, 86p.
8.Hajibeglo, A. 2006. Investingating
relationship between litter quality and
stand organs in some range plant species.
M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Natural
Resources, Tehran University, Tehran.
90p.
9.Hoseini, V., Azizi, M., Tabari, V., and
Hoseini, M. 2006. Comparison of
decomposition summer alder litter in two
habitats with different native stone. J.
Natur. Resour. 58: 3. 551-545.
10.Jafari, M., and Sarmadian, F.
2003. Fundamental of soil Taxonomy.
University of Tehran Press, 788p.
(In Persian)
11.Jafari, M., Azarnivand, H., Hajibaglo,
A., and Alizadeh, E. 2010. Investigation
of litter quality and aerial organs and
their effect on soil characteristics of four
rangeland species (Case study: Hamand
Absard) Range Water. Manage. J.
3: 68. 307-318.
12.Jafari, M., Saberi, M., Tavili, A., and
Zare Chahouki, M.A. 2012. Comparison
of Litter and Aerial Organs Quality in
Three Rangeland Species (Case study:
Taleghan Rangelands). 72: 89-96.
13.Jafari, M., Zare Chahouki, M.A., Rahim
Zadeh, N., and Shafizadeh M. 2008.
Comparing the litter quality and its
effect on soil characteristics of three
species in rangelands of Vard-Avard.
J. Range. 1: 2. 1-10.
14.Jafari, Z., Niknahad, H., and Komaki,
Ch.B. 2014. Comparing qualitative soil
indicators under two range management
scenarios (Case study: Chut Rangelands
in Gonbadekavoos). Desert Ecosyst.
Engin. J. 4: 3. 11-20.
15.Kamali, A.A., Foroozandeh, A.D.,
Tabatabaei, S.N., and Ranjbari, A.R.
2014. Determination of nutritive value
of Aeluropus lagopides in Bushehr
Province rangelands. Animal Sciences
Journal. Intake of water. Nebr. Agric.
Exp. Stn Res. Bull. No. 112.
16.Katzensteiner, K. 2003. Effect of
harvesting on nutrient leaching in
aNorway spruce (Picea abies karst.)
ecosystem on a lithic leptosol in the
Northern Limestone Alps. Plant and
Soil, 250: 59-73.
17.Keshavarz, P., Zangiabadi M., and
Abbaszadeh M. 2013. Relationship
between soil organic carbon and wheat
grain yield as affected by soil clay
content and salinity. Iranian Journal of
Soil Research (Formerly Soil and Water
Sciences): 27: 3. 359-371.
18.Khorasan Razavi General Office for
Natural Resources and Watershed
Management. 2016. Aerial photo studies
of Kadkan-Bers watershed. Torbat
Heydaryeh Office of Natural Resources
and Watershed Management, Zarin
Dasht Company, 105p.
19.Li, Y.L., Wang, L., Zhang, W.Q.,
Zhang, S.P., Wang, H.L., Fu, X.H., and
Li, Y.Q. 2010. Variability of soil carbon
sequestration capability and microbial
activity of different types of salt marsh
soils at Chongming Dongtan. Ecol. Eng.
36: 1754-1760.
20.Moslehi, M., Habashi, H., and Rahman,
R. 2016. Seasonal changes of soil
organic carbon pool in the managed and
unmanaged beech-hornbeam stands.
Iran. J. For. Pop. Res. 13: 1. 23-34.
21.Naseri, S., Adibi, M.A., Javadi, S.A.,
Jafari, M., and Zadbar, M. 2012.
Investigation of the Effect of Biological
Stabilization Practice on Some Soil
Parameters (North East of Iran). J.
Range. Sci. 2: 4. 643-653.
22.Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney,
D.R. 1982. Methods of soil Analysis,
Part 2, second edition, American Society
of Agronomy-Soil Science Society of
America, Madison, USA, 1159p.
23.Saberi, M., Jafari, M., Tavili, A.,
Chahouki, Z., and Tahmoures, M. 2012.
Comparison the Amount of Existing
Mineral Elements in plant Aerial Parts,
Litter and Soil of Three Range Species in
Taleghan Region. Desert, 17: 1. 91-97.
24.Sadeghi Shahrakht, T., Jankju, M., and
Mesdaghi, M. 2013. Effects of Shrub
Canopy on the Microclimate and Soil
Properties of Steppe Rangeland, J.
Range. Sci. 3: 3. 213-222.
25.Sadeghirad, A., Nasrollahi, M.,
Azarvand, H., and Zare Chahoki, M.A.
2015. Comparison of Plant Litter
Composition in Three Range Species
and its Effects on Soil Fertility (Case
study: North Eastern Islamabad
Rangeland, Kermanshah Province, Iran).
J. Range. Sci. 5: 2. 1-10.
26.Sauvadet, M., Chauvat, M., Fanin, N.,
Coulibaly, S., and Bertrand, I. 2016.
Comparing the effects of litter quality
and quality on soil biota structure and
functioning: Application to a cultivated
soil in Northern France. Applied Soil
Ecology, 107: 261-271.
27.Singh, H., Dixit, A., Sharma, R.A., and
Sharma, R. 2015. Comparative
evaluation of total phenolic content,
total flavonoid content and DPPH free
radical scavenging avtivity of different
plant parts of vitex negundo L.
Inter. J. Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sci.
7: 2. 144-147.
28.Tamartash, R., Jafari, M., Heidary
Sharifabad, H., Zahedi Amiri, G., and
Zehtabian, G.R. 2013. Determination of
relationship between some herbal
plants and soil in the ecosystems of
mountainous rangeland of Taleghan.
PEC. 1: 3. 15-29.
29.Varmaghani, S., Moosavi, M.A., and
Jafari, H. 2005. Determination of
minerals in range plants of Ilam
Province. J. Res. Cons. 73: 103-109.
30.Zare Chahouki, M.A. 2014. Plant
species effects on soil properties in
Nirrangelands of Yazd Province (Iran),
International Conference on Biological,
Environment and Food Engineering.
Pp: 10-14.
31.Zhou, Z., Sun, O.J., Luo, Z., Jin, H.,
Chen, Q., and Han, X. 2008.Variation in
small-scale spatial heterogeneity of
soil properties and vegetation with
different land use in semiarid grassland
ecosystem. Plant Soil, 310: 103-112.