اثر قرق بر رواناب، غلظت رسوب و هدررفت خاک در کرت های فرسایش در حوزه آبخیز معرف خامسان در استان کردستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

2 کارشناس، اداره منابع طبیعی شهرستان دهگلان، دهگلان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

5 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

6 کارشناس، اداره منابع طبیعی شهرستان دیواندره، دیواندره، ایران

7 کارشناس، اداره کل منابع طبیعی استان کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: امروزه انجام طرح‌های مدیریتی آبخیزداری و مرتع‌داری نقش مهمی در مدیریت منابع آب و خاک در سرتاسر جهان ایفا می‌کنند. اگرچه پروژه‌های آبخیزداری و مرتع‌داری به‌عنوان یک رویکرد برای توسعه بخش‌های روستایی و مدیریت منابع طبیعی از اهمیت قابل توجهی برخوردارند، اما بیش‌تر مطالعات به بررسی اثر آن‌ها بر رسوب پرداخته‌اند و اثر آن‌ها بر فرسایش خاک کم‌تر مورد توجه بوده است. این در حالی است که مطالعه اثربخشی همه‌جانبه این طرح‌ها برای تجزیه و تحلیل عمل‌کرد آن‌ها در دست‌یابی به اهداف طرح ضروری می‌باشد . لذا پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور بررسی اثر عملیات قرق بر متغیرهای رواناب، غلظت رسوب و هدررفت خاک در کرت‌های فرسایش و در مقیاس رگبار انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر در زیرحوزه‌های نمونه و شاهد به ترتیب دارای و بدون عملیات قرق با مساحت‌های 54/107 و 15/110 هکتار در جنوب غربی در حوزه معرف خامسان در جنوب استان کردستان در کشور ایران با مساحت 27/4337 هکتار انجام گرفت. به منظور اندازه‌گیری مقادیر رواناب و هدررفت خاک تعداد سه کرت با ابعاد 13/22 در 83/1 متر در هر یک از دامنه‌های غربی، شمالی و شرقی نصب شدند. تیمار قرق در کرت‌های مستقر در زیرحوزه نمونه از سال 1386 اجرا شد. سپس داده‌های حجم و ضریب رواناب، غلظت رسوب و هدررفت خاک برای 52 رگبار مربوط به سال‌های 1388 تا 1393 در حوزه آبخیز معرف خامسان مورد اندازه‌گیری قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که عملیات قرق بر حجم رواناب، غلظت رسوب و هدررفت خاک در کرت‌های فرسایش و در مقیاس رگبار اثر کاهنده و معنی‌داری (05/0p≤) داشت. در نهایت کاهش متغیرهای حجم و ضریب رواناب، غلظت رسوب، هدررفت خاک و رسوب‌دهی رگبار پس از اِعمال قرق به‌ترتیب برابر 68/15، 13/6، 67/16، 37/24 و 43/21 درصد مشاهده شد. متغیرهای حجم رواناب، هدررفت خاک و رسوب‌دهی در کرت‌های فرسایش مستقر در دو زیرحوزه نمونه (قرق) و شاهد (غیر قرق) دارای اختلاف معنی‌دار (p ≤ 05/0) بودند. متغیر غلظت رسوب نیز مقدار آماره P برابر با 058/0 داشت و لذا تغییرات آن نیز در اثر قرق در سطح اعتماد نزدیک به 95 درصد معنی‌دار ارزیابی گردید. به عبارت دیگر مقادیر مربوط به متغیرهای مذکور در حوزه نمونه که تحت شرایط قرق بوده و پوشش گیاهی آن غنی‌تر بود به‌طور معنی‌داری کم‌تر بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده می‌توان بیان نمود که تیمار قرق با افزایش تراکم پوشش گیاهی موجب افزایش نفوذ و کاهش رواناب، غظت رسوب و هدررفت خاک در مقیاس کرت گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Exclosure on Runoff, Sediment Concentration and Soil Loss in Erosion Plots in Khamsan Representative Watershed of Kurdistan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdulvahed Khaledi Darvishan 1
  • Azadeh Katebikord 3
  • Hero Mohammad Amini 4
  • Leila Gholami 5
  • Asadollah Karamzadeh 6
  • Aref Bahmani 7
  • Farhang Saeidi 7
1 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Watershed Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Watershed Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
4 Former Master Student, Dept. of Watershed Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
5 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Watershed Management, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
6 Expert, Natural Resources Office of Divandarreh, Divandarreh, Iran
7 Expert, Natural Resources General Office of Kurdistan Province, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Nowadays performing the watershed and rangeland management projects play the important role in water resources and soil management worldwide. Although watershed and rangeland management projects have the considerable importance as approaches to rural areas development and natural resources management, more studies have been focused on their effects on sediment and their effects on soil erosion have rarely been considered. While, knowing the integrated effectiveness of watershed and rangeland management projects is necessary for their performance analysis to achieve the project goals. The present research was therefore conducted to study the effect of exclosure on runoff volume and coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss in erosion plots at the scale of individual rainfall events.
Materials and methods: The present study was conducted in two treated and control sub-watersheds with exclosure treatment and under grazing with area of 107.54 and 110.15 ha in southwest respectively, in Khamsan representative watershed with an area of 4337.27 ha in south of Kurdistan Province, Iran. Three plots with dimension of 22.13 × 1.83 m were installed in each western, northern and eastern slopes for the runoff volume and coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss measurement. The exclosure treatment was operated for installed plots in treated subwatershed from 2007. Then, all the data of runoff volume and coefficient, sediment concentration and soil loss from USLE standard plots in both control and treated sub-watersheds for 52 rainfall events over the years 2009 to 2014 were measured.
Results: The results showed the significant (p≤0.05) decreasing effect of exclosure treatment on runoff volume, sediment concentration and soil loss in erosion plots at the scale of individual rainfall events. Finally, decreasing rates of 15.68, 6.13, 16.67, 24.37 and 21.43 % due to exclosure respectively for runoff volume and coefficient, sediment concentration, soil loss and sediment yield were observed. The variables of runoff volume, soil loss and sediment yield had statistically significant differences (p≤0.05) in treated and control sub-watersheds. The sediment concentration variable had p value of 0.058 and therefore the effect of exclosure treatment on sediment concentration was also significant (p≤0.06). In other words, the variables of runoff volume, sediment concentration, soil loss and sediment yield were significantly decreased in treated plots and sub-watershed due to exclosure.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be revealed that the exclosure treatment, because of increasing vegetation density, caused the increasing infiltration and the decreasing runoff, sediment concentration and soil loss at plot scale.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Khamsan Watershed
  • Soil Conservation
  • soil loss
  • Vegetation cover
  • watershed management
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