بررسی رفتار فسفرقابل‌استفاده تحت شرایط غرقابی در خاکهای شالیزاری پس از کاربرد کود فسفره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات بنج کشور

2 عضو هیات علمی - موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری

4 عضو هیات علمی- موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

5 کارشناس آزمایشگاه شیمی خاک موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور

چکیده

سابقه و هدف : فسفر پس از نیتروژن یکی از عوامل محدودکننده رشد و توسعه برنج بوده و کمبود آن تأثیر بسیار شدیدی بر عملکرد برنج خواهد داشت. علی رغم اهمیت حیاتی فسفر برای کشت برنج در اراضی شالیزاری، بازیافت آن در خاک‌های کشاورزی بسیار پایین و از 25% فسفر افزوده شده نیز کمتر بوده و باقیمانده آن به شکل‌های مختلف در خاک تثبیت و یا با ورود به چرخه هیدرولوژیکی از دسترس گیاه در فصل رشد خارج می‌‌‌شود. اهداف این مطالعه بررسی روند تغییرات زمانی فسفر قابل استفاده، بررسی رفتار فسفر قابل استفاده با معادلات سینتیکی و تاثیر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک بر روند تغییرات فسفر قابل استفاده و بررسی امکان تقسیط فسفر در خاک‌های شالیزاری می باشد.
مواد و روشها: این پژوهش آزمایشگاهی به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی و در سه تکرار شامل نوع خاک در 6 سطح، مقدار کود فسفره در دو سطح (صفر و 45 کیلوگرم در هکتار پنتا اکسید فسفرP2O5 ) به انجام رسید. 5/2 گرم خاک با کمک 5 میلی‌لیتر آب به شرایط غرقابی رسید. پس از افزودن تیمار فسفر به خاکهای اشباع شده، براساس تقویم زمانی متفاوت، عصاره‌گیری شد. در نهایت مقدار فسفر‌قابل‌استفاده در هریک ار آنها اندازه‌گیری گردید. مقدار فسفر قابل استفاده با استفاده از معادلات سینتیکی مرتبه صفر، اول، دوم، الوویچ ساده، تابع نمایی، و انتشار پارابولیکی برازش و براساس ضرایب تشخیص و اشتباه استاندارد برآورد، معادلاتی که قادر به توصیف رفتار فسفر بودند گزینش و ضرایب آنها تعیین گردید.
یافته ها: نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که در تمام خاکها و علی رغم تفاوت در خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی آنها، مقدار فسفر قابل استفاده یک ماه پس از غرقاب به طور معنی‌داری بیشتر(72 درصد ) از مقدار فسفر قابل جذب خاک خاک هوا خشک بود. نمودار رفتار فسفرقابل استفاده طی زمان نشان داد که سرعت افزایش غلظت فسفرقابل استفاده در مراحل اولیه (تا 48 ساعت اولیه) سریع و سپس با گذشت زمان (تا 288 ساعت) به تدریج کاهش یافته و این روند تا 600 ساعت دنبال شده، پس از آن کاهش مقدار فسفرقابل استفاده با سرعت تقریباً ثابتی تا روز آخر آزمون ادامه یافت. معادلات مرتبه یک و دو (بالاترین ضریب تشخیص)و مرتبه صفر و تابع توانی (کمترین خطای استاندارد) به دلیل ضریب تشخیص بالا و خطای استاندارد کم و تقریبا مشابه می توانند سرعت آزاد‌سازی فسفر را بهتر توصیف کنند. در بین معادلات گزینش شده تنها شیب منحنی معادله مرتبه دوم با تمام ویژگی‌‌‌های شیمیایی و فیزیکی خاک‌ها همبستگی (منفی یا مثبت ) معنی‌داری را نشان داد. (اسیدیته (*51/0-) و کربن آلی (*51/0-)، کربنات کلسیم معادل (**68/0)، فسفر قابل جذب در شرایط غیر غرقابی (*51/0-) و غرقابی (*51/0-) ، درصد شن (**68/0 ) و درصد رس (**60/0- )) و بنابراین می‌تواند معادله نهایی برای توصیف رفتار فسفر خاکهای شالیزاری مورد مطالعه باشد.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج بر کاهش 50 درصد فسفر افزوده شده قبل از 300 ساعت یا 12 روز(مرحله رویشی) و 70 درصد در حدود 1400 ساعت یا دو ماه(شروع مرحله زایشی گیاه برنج) تاکید داشته و می تواند مبنای مطالعات تقسیط فسفر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Behaviour of available phosphorus during submerged condtion in rice paddy soils by adding phosphorus fertilizer

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Phosphorus (P), next to nitrogen is the most limiting factor of rice growth and development. Phosphorus deficiency have severe negative impact on rice yield. Despite of vital importance of P on rice production in paddy fields, its recovery is too low -less than 25% of applied P fertilizers- and the rest unrecovered P will fix in paddy soils through various aging process and fractions, or/ and lost along inefficient off stream and runoff movement. The one year project was conducted to identify and improve these trends. The main objectives of current study are: To characterize P desorption behaviors on six different types of paddy soils, to explore the P kinetics equations and their coefficients and to study the possibility of P fertilizers splitting through results of P kinetics findings.
Materials and Methods: A two factors factorial experiment was done based on complete random design with six levels of soils and two levels of P fertilizer (0 and 45 kg ha-1 P2O5 in source of pure K2HPO4). 2.5 g of sieved and air dried soil samples were submerged by 5 ml for 30 days in 25 oC. The submerged soils treated by P levels and available P sequentially extracted in the following time sequences: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 17, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70 and 75 days after P treatment. The extracted available P was run with the zero, first, second and third order equations, Elovich kinetic equation, and power function equation, and parabolic diffusion equation to calculate the coefficients of equations. The best fitted equation was selected according to the determination coefficient (R2) and the standard error of estimate (SEE).
Results: The findings of this research showed that in spite of different physical and chemical soil characters, the available P increased significantly through submerging (72%) compared to no flooded condition, averagely about 6.7 to 8.2 mg kg-1 in all soils. Moreover, the desorption curves of available P indicated a rapid decrease of P concentration (until 48 hours after adding P), and followed by gradual reduction until 600 hours after adding P and continued to end of experiment by very slow and constant slope. The first and second order equation (highest R2), zero and power function equations (highest SEE) could describe the P desorption process. Finally, the second order model were selected to express the P behavior in all soils because of the high R2 values, lower SEE and the significant correlation with soil properties. The slope of second order equation indicated significant correlation with pH (-0.51**), organic carbon (-.51**), calcium carbonate content (0.68**), available P of un- flooded condition (-0.51**), available P of submerged soils (-0.51**), Sand (0.68**) and clay content (-0.60).
Conclusion: Also P desorption curves showed three different reactions by time, 50 reduction of P before 12 days and 70 reduction before 60 days. Therefore, it might be concluded that P splitting at the begging of vegetative and reproductive stages is achievable.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phosphorus
  • kenitics equations
  • flooded condition
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