تعیین تابع تولید برتر آب-شوری-عملکرد ماده خشک در دوره رشد رویشی خرما

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشکده خرما و میوه های گرمسیری-سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: برنامه‌ریزی دقیق به‌منظور استفاده بهینه از منابع آب در بخش کشاورزی با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی کشور از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار است. بر اساس نتایج تحقیقات انجام شده، خشکی و شوری دو عامل محدود کننده تولیدات کشاورزی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است. از آنجا که تغییر هر یک موجب تعدیل و یا تشدید اثر دیگری بر گیاه می‌شود، بررسی تاثیر توام آنها بر گیاهانی مانند نخل خرما ضرورت دارد. در این پژوهش، اثرات توام تنش آبی و شوری آب آبیاری در مرحله رشد رویشی خرمای رقم برحی که یکی از مهمترین ارقام تجاری کشور است، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: این پژوهش به روش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آماری کاملا تصادفی با دو عامل میزان آب آبیاری و شوری آب آبیاری در سه تکرار روی نهال‌های خرمای رقم برحی انجام شد. میزان آب آبیاری در سه سطح 100، 85 و 70 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه و شوری آب آبیاری در سه سطح 5/2، 8 و 12 دسی زیمنس بر متر بودند. میزان آب آبیاری با اندازه‌گیری رطوبت خاک محاسبه شد. توابع تولید آب - شوری - عملکرد ماده خشک به صورت معادلات خطی ساده، لگاریتمی، درجه دوم و متعالی تعیین شدند. پنج شاخص آماری ضریب تعیین تعدیل شده (R2adj)، کارایی مدل‌سازی (EF)، حداکثر خطا (ME)، ریشه میانگین مربعات خطای نرمال شده (nRMSE) و ضریب جرم باقی مانده (CRM) برای ارزیابی و مقایسه این معادلات استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای میزان آب آبیاری، شوری آب آبیاری و اثرات متقابل میزان آبیاری و شوری آب اثر معنی‌دار بر تمام صفات رویشی به‌جز مقدار نسبی آب اندام هوایی داشتند. با کاهش میزان آبیاری از 100 به 85 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه، میانگین ماده تر و خشک اندام هوایی به‌ترتیب فقط 0/5 و 6/5 درصد کاهش یافت که معنی‌دار نبود. میانگین ماده تر و خشک اندام هوایی هنگام آبیاری به میزان 70 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه، به‌ترتیب با 3/26 و 4/24 درصد کاهش معنی‌دار داشتند. در حالی که با افزایش شوری آب از 5/2 به 8 دسی زیمنس بر متر، میانگین ماده تر و خشک اندام هوایی به‌ترتیب با0/44 و 0/42 درصد کاهش معنی‌دار یافتند که این مقادیر در آب 12 دسی زیمنس بر متر به‌ترتیب به 1/54 و 0/52 درصد رسید. بیشترین مقادیر صفات رویشی گیاه در آبیاری با آب 5/2 دسی زیمنس بر متر به میزان 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه بود که اختلاف معنی‌دار با سایر تیمارها به جز آبیاری با آب 5/2 دسی زیمنس بر متر به میزان 85 درصد نیاز آبی داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: آبیاری نهال‌های خرمای رقم برحی هنگام مصرف آب با شوری 5/2 دسی زیمنس بر متر، می‌تواند بر اساس 85 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه انجام شود. مقایسه توابع تولید آب - شوری - عملکرد ماده خشک نشان داد که در دوره رشد رویشی خرمای رقم برحی، معادله درجه دوم دارای دقت بیشتری در برآورد عملکرد ماده خشک بود. تمام معادلات به جز معادله درجه دوم، میزان ماده خشک اندام هوایی را کمتر از میزان واقعی برآورد نمودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of water-salinity-dry matter yield production function in vegetative growth phase of date palm

نویسنده [English]

  • Majid Alihouri

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Accurate planning is very important for optimized use of water resources in agricultural sector due to climate condition of Iran. According to the research results, drought and salinity are two factors limiting agricultural production in arid and semi-arid. Since changing drought or salinity adjust or increase other effect on plant, it is necessary evaluating combined effects of drought and salinity on plants such as date palm. In this reseach, the effect of water stress and salinity were studied in vegetative growth stage of Barhee date.
Materials and methods: This research was carried out in factorial method based on randomized complete design with three replications on Barhee juvenile date palms. The treatments were three irrigation depths of 100%, 85% and 70% of plant water requirement and three irrigation water salinities of 2.5, 8 and 12 dS/m. The irrigation depth was calculated by measuring soil moisture. The production functions of water-salinity-dry matter yield were determined in linear, Cobb-Douglas, quadratic and transcendental equations. Five statistical indices of adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj), modeling efficiency (EF), maximum error (ME), normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) and coefficient of residual mass (CRM) were used in evaluation of models.
Results: The results showed that irrigation depth, water salinity and interaction of irrigation depth and water salinity had significant effect on all vegetative characters of plant except shoot relative water content. Decreasing irrigation depth from 100% to 85% of plant water requirement showed non-significant decrease in mean of shoot wet and dry matter that were only 5.0 and 5.6 percent, respectively. Amounts of these characters decreased significantly 26.3 and 24.4 percent, respectively, in irrigation depth equal 70% of plant water requirement. While, increasing water salinity from 2.5 to 8 dS/m was caused significant decrease in mean of shoot wet and dry matter that were 44.0 and 42.0 percent, respectively. Amounts of these characters decreased 54.1 and 52.0 percent, respectively, in irrigation with water 12 dS/m. The most amounts of plant vegetative characteristics obtained from water salinity of 2.5 dS/m and irrigation depth equal 100% of plant water requirement. This treatment had significantly different with other treatments expect water salinity of 2.5 dS/m and irrigation depth equal 85% of plant water requirement.
Conclusion: The Barhee juvenile date palms can be irrigated with 85% of water requirement when water salinity is 2.5 dS/m. The comparison of production functions of water-salinity-dry matter yield showed that quadratic equation had more accuracy than other equations in estimation of dry matter yield in vegetative growth phase of Barhee date palm. All equations estimated shoot dry matter less than actual amount expect quadratic equation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • Irrigation
  • Modeling
  • Saline water
  • Shoot
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