1.An, H., and Li, G.Q. 2015. Effects of grazing on carbon and nitrogen in plants and soils in a
semiarid desert grassland, China. J. Arid Land. 7: 3. 341-349.
2.Anonymous, 2015. Yearbook of meteorological status of Khuzestan province. Iranian
Meteorological Organization, Research Division of Khuzestan Province.
3.Banaii, M.H. 1998. Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes Map. Soil and Water Research
Institute of Iran. Tehran. (In Persian)
4.Benbi, D.K., Brar, K., Toor, A.S., and Singh, P. 2015. Total and labile pools of soil organic
carbon in cultivated and undisturbed soils in northern India. Geoderma. 237: 149-158.
5.Blair, G.J., Lefroy, R.D.B., and Lisle, L. 1995. Soil carbon fractions based on their degree of
oxidation and the development of a carbon management index for agricultural systems.
Austr. J. Agric. Res. 46: 1459-1466.
6.Brevik, E.C., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J.N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.
2015. The interdisciplinary nature of soil. Soil J. 1: 117-129.
7.Cao, G.M., Tang, Y.H., Mo, W.H., Wang, Y.A., Li, Y.N., and Zhao, X.Q. 2004. Grazing
intensity alters soil respiration in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry. 36: 237-243.
8.Cao, Y.Z., Wang, X.D., Lu, X.Y., Yan, Y., and Fan, J.H. 2013. Soil organic carbon and
nutrients along an alpine grassland transect across Northern Tibet. J. Moun. Sci. 10: 564-573.
9.Chapman, H.D. 1965. Cation-exchange capacity. P 891-901, In: C.A. Black (Ed.), Methods of
soil analysis - hemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy.
10.Chen, J., Zhou, X., Wang, J., Hruska, T., Shi, W., Cao, J., Zhang, B., Xu, G., Chen, Y., and Luo,
Y. 2016. Grazing exclusion reduced soil respiration but increased its temperature sensitivity in a
Meadow grassland on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecology and Evolution. 6: 3. 675-687.
11.Christensen, B.T. 1992. Physical fractionation of soil organic matter in primary particle size
and density separates. Advances in Soil Science. 20: 1-90.
12.Costa, C., Papatheodorou, E.M., Monokrousos, N., and Stamou, G.P. 2015. Spatial
variability of soil organic C, inorganic N and extractable P in a mediterranean grazed area.
Land Degradation and Development. 26: 103-109.
13.Culman, S.W., Snapp, S.S., Freeman, M.A., Schipanski, M.E., Beniston, J., Lal, R.,
Drinkwater, L.E., Franzluebbers, A.J., Glover, J.D., Grandy, A.S., Lee, J., Six, J., Maul, J.E.,
Mirksy, S.B., Spargo, J.T., and Wander, M.M. 2012. Permanganate oxidizable carbon
reflects a processed soil fraction that is sensitive to management. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J.
14.Dai, W., and Huang, Y. 2006. Relation of soil organic matter concentration to climate and
altitude in zonal soils of Chin. Catena. 65: 87-94.
15.Dai, E.F., Zhai, R.X., Ge, Q.S., and Wu, X. 2014. Detecting the storage and change on
topsoil organic carbon in grasslands of Inner Mongolia from 1980s to 2010s. Acta
Geographica Sinica. 24: 6. 1035-1046.
16.Eskandari, N., Alizadeh, A., and Mahdavi, F. 2008. Policies of range management in Iran
(Rangeland Technical Office). Pooneh Press.
17.Feng, W.T., Zou, X.M., and Schaefer, D.A. 2009. Above and belowground carbon inputs
affect seasonal variations of soil microbial biomass in a subtropical monsoon forest of
southwest China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 41: 978-983.
18.Ferreira, A.O., Amado, T.J.C., Nicoloso, R.S., Sa, J.C.M., Fiorin, J.E., Hansel, D.S.S., and
Menefee, D. 2013. Soil carbon stratification affected by long-term tillage and cropping
systems in southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research. 133: 65-74.
19.Franzluebbers, A.J. 2002. Soil organic matter stratification ratio as an indicator of soil
quality. Soil and Tillage Research. 66: 95-106.
20.Franzluebbers, A.J. 2013. Pursuing robust agroecosystem functioning through effective soil
organic carbon management. Carbon. Management. 4: 43-56.
21.Gass, T.M., and Binkley, D. 2011. Soil nutrient losses in an altered ecosystem are associated
with native ungulate grazing. J. Appl. Ecol. 48: 952-960.
22.Gee, G.W., and Bauder, J.W. 1986. Particle size analysis. P 383-411, In: A. Klute (Ed.),
Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. American Society of Agronomy. Inc. Madison, WI, USA.
23.Ghani, A., Dexter, M., and Perrott, K.W. 2003. Hot-water extractable carbon in soils: a
sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilization, grazing and cultivation.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 35: 1231-1243.
24.Graham, M.H., Haynes, R.J., and Meyer, J.H. 2002. Changes in soil chemistry and aggregate
stability induced by fertilizer applications, burning and trash retention on a long-term
sugarcane experiment in South Africa. Europ. J. Soil Sci. 53: 4. 589-598.
25.Gregorich, E.G., Beare, M.H., McKim, U.F., and Skjemstad, J.O. 2006. Chemical and
biological characteristics of physically uncomplexed organic matter. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J.
26.Haynes, R.J. 2005. Labile organic matter fractions as central components of the quality of
agricultural soils: An overview. Advances in Agronomy. 85: 221-268.
27.He, N., Wu, L., Wang, Y., and Han, X. 2009. Changes in carbon and nitrogen in soil particlesize fractions along a grassland restoration chrono sequence in northern China. Geoderma.
28.Heidarian Aghakhani, M., Naghipour Borj, A.A., and Nasri, M. 2010. The effect of grazing
on vegetation and soil chemical properties Sisab rangelands, Bojnord, Iran. Quarterly
Renewable Natural Resources Research. First year, Second Issue. Pp: 14-27. (In Persian)
29.Kalambukattu, J.G., Singh, R., Patra, A.K., and Arunkumar, K. 2013. Soil carbon pools and
carbon management index under different land use systems in the central Himalayan region.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B, Soil and Plant Science. 63: 3. 200-205.
30.Landi, L., Renella, G., Moreno, J.L., Falchini, L., and Nannipieri, P. 2000. Influence of
cadmium on the metabolic quotient, L:D-glutamic acid respiration ratio and enzyme activity:
microbial biomass ratio under laboratory conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 32: 1. 8-16.
31.Li, X., Zhang, C., Fu, Z., Guo, D., Song, X., Wan, C., and Ren, J. 2013. Grazing exclusion
alters soil microbial respiration, root respiration and the soil carbon balance in grasslands of
the Loess Plateau, northern China. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 59: 877-887.
32.Lorenz, K., Lal, R., and Shipitalo, M.J. 2008. Chemical stabilization of organic carbon
pools in particle size fractions in no-till and meadow soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils.
33.Marschner, B., and Kalbitz, K. 2003. Controls on bioavailability and biodegradability of
dissolved organic matter in soils. Geoderma. 113: 211-235.
34.Mctiernan, K.B., Jarvis, S.C., Scholefield, D., and Hayes, M.H.B. 2001. Dissolved organic
carbon losses from grazed grasslands under different management regimes. Water Research.
35: 10. 2565-2569.
35.Mirsky, S.B., Lanyon, L.E., and Needelman, B.A. 2008. Evaluating soil management
using particulate and chemically labile soil organic matter fractions. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J.
72: 1. 180-185.
36.Mofidi, M., Jafari, M., Tavili, A., Rashtbari, M., and Alijanpour, A. 2013. Grazing exclusion
effect on soil and vegetation properties in Imam Kandi Rangelands, Iran. Arid Land
Research and Management. 27: 32-40.
37.Mohammadi, H., and Tahmasebi, H. 2000. Range management plan in Penty area of Ize city.
Department of Natural Resources Khuzestan Province. (In Persian)
38.Neff, J.C., Reynolds, R.L., Belnap, J., and Lamothe, P. 2005. Multi-decadal impacts of
grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah. Ecological
Applications. 15: 87-95.
39.Nelson, D.W., and Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter.
P 539-579, In: A.L. Page (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.
40.Rasse, D.P., Rumpel, C., and Dignac, M.F. 2005. Is soil carbon mostly root carbon?
Mechanisms for a specific stabilization. Plant and Soil. 269: 341-356.
41.Rhoades, J.D. 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved soils. P 417-435,
In: D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods, SSSA Book
Series Number 5. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI.
42.Raiesi, F., and Asadi, E. 2006. Soil microbial activity and litter turnover in native grazed and
ungrazed rangelands in a semiarid ecosystem. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 43: 76-82.
43.Raiesi, F., and Riahi, M. 2014. The influence of grazing exclosure on soil C stocks and
dynamics and ecological indicators in upland arid and semi-arid rangelands. Ecological
Indicators. 41: 145-154.
44.Rui, X., and Xiuqin, W. 2016. Effects of grazing intensity on soil organic carbon of rangelands
in Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia, China. J. Geograph. Sci. 26: 11. 1550-1560.
45.Shahriari Geraei, D., Hojati, S., Landi, A., and Faz Cano, A. 2016. Total and labile forms of
soil organic carbon as affected by land use change in southwestern Iran. Geoderma. Reg.
46.Silva, F.D., Carneiro Amado, T.J., Ferreira, A.O., Assmann, J.M., Anghinoni, I., and Faccio
Carvalho, P.C. 2014. Soil carbon indices as affected by 10 years of integrated crop-livestock
production with different pasture grazing intensities in Southern Brazil. Agriculture,
Ecosystems and Environment. 190: 60-69.
47.Su, Y.Z., Zhao, H.L., Zhang, T.H., and Zhao, X.Y. 2004. Soil properties following
cultivation and non-greazing of semi-arid sandy grassland in northern china. Soil and Tillage
Research. 75: 27-36.
48.Steffens, M., Kolbl, A., and Knabner, I.K. 2009. Alteration of soil organic matter pools and
aggregation in semi-arid steppe topsoils as driven by organic matter input. Europ. J. Soil Sci.
49.Stevenson, F.J. 1994. Humus Chemistry-Genesis, Composition, Reactions. 2nd ed., Wiley,
50.Tarhouni, M., Ben Hmida, W., and Neffati, M. 2015. Long-term changes in plant life forms
as a consequence of grazing exclusion under arid climatic conditions. Land Degradation and
Development. 20: 214-216.
51.Thomas, G.W. 1996. Soil pH and soil acidity. P 475-490, In: D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of
Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods., SSSA Book Series Number 5, Soil Science
Society of America. Madison, WI.
52.Thompson, T.L., Zaady, E., Huancheng, P., Wilson, T.B., and Martens, D.A. 2006.
Soil C and N pools in patchy shrublands of the Negev and Chihuahuan Deserts. Soil Biology
and Biochemistry. 38: 1943-1955.
53.Vance, E.D., Brookes, P.C., and Jenkinson, D.S. 1987. An extraction method for measuring
soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 19: 703-707.
54.Vig, K., Megharaj, M., Sthunathan, N., and Naidu, R. 2003. Bioavailability and toxicity of
cadmium to microorganisms and their activities in soil: a review. Advances in
Environmental Research. 8: 121-135.
55.Walkley, A., and Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining
soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method.
Soil Science. 63: 251-263.
56.Wei, J.B., Xiao, D.N., Zeng, H., and Fu, Y.K. 2008. Spatial variability of soil properties in
relation to land use and topography in a typical small watershed of the black soil region,
northeastern China. Environmental Geology. 53: 1663-1672.
57.Xu, M., Lou, Y., Sun, X., Wang, W., Baniyamuddin, M., and Zhao, K. 2011. Soil organic
carbon active fractions as early indicators for total carbon change under straw incorporation.
Biology and Fertility of Soils. 47: 745-752.