Phosphorus Fractionation in relation to algal growth (Scenedesmus Obliquus) in western river Sediment of Urmia Lake basin

Document Type: Research Paper

Author

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Phosphorus is a finite resource and an essential nutrient for sustaining all forms of life in aquatic environment. It was also found in various chemical forms which might be gradually released into water column and exacerbate eutrophic condition in rivers and lakes. Thus, P fractionation provide useful insight into risk posed by P-associated sediments to aquatic environment. There is little information available regarding P chemical forms and its bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems in Iran and there was limited number of publications regarding the evaluation of P forms release from river sediments. The published reports and field observations clearly insist on the phytoplankton growth and some dense algal blooms occurring during years with low water in river sediments. Thus, evaluation of P in aquatic environments by algal bioassay and threats of losing biodiversity could be essential.
Material and Methods: Thirty four river sediments from seven main rivers of the Urmia Lake basin were taken from depth of 0-10 cm for algae (Senedesmus Obliquus) bioavailable P evaluation by sequential chemical extraction. Phosphorous pools in these sediments extracted using operationally defined method that includes as exchangeable (EXCH-P), iron and aluminum oxide-bound (Fe/Al-P), calcium bound (Ca-P), and residual P (RES-P). Principle component analysis was conducted to determine the important properties and chemical forms of P in sediment samples. Algal bioassay was carried out to distinguish the bioavailable P fractions. Hierarchical cluster analysis and Pearson simple correlation were applied for selection of the samples of algal assay and determining bioavailable P fraction, respectively.
Results: Generally, sediments had coarse texture with high amount of silt and very fine sand. Principle component analysis indicates that particle and carbonate-related properties have significant role in determination of sediments properties. The average rank order of P extraction by sequential extraction were, Ca-P > RES-P > Fe/Al-P > EXCH-P for all rivers except the Simineh Chai. Simineh Chai sediments had higher concentration of Fe/Al-P than RES-P, indicating possible pollution in the river. There was significant correlation between Fe/Al-P (r = 0.947, P< 0.0001), EXCH-P (r = 0.668, P < 0.01), and RES-P (R=0.563, P Conclusion: Analysis of P fractions in sediments by sequential chemical extraction shows that Fe/Al-P fraction provided higher potential bioavailability, and due to significant correlation with algal growth is proper indicator to evaluate river health and eutrophication of Urmia Lake. River sediment of Urmia Lake had high ability to retain P in Ca-P fraction which could be recalcitrant P pool for algal growth.

Keywords


1.Bauycos, G.J. 1962. Hydrometer methods improved for making particle size of soils.
Agron. J. 56: 464-465.
2.Chang, S.C., and Jackson, M.L. 1957. Fractionation of soil phosphorous. Soil Sci.
84: 2. 133-144.
3.Diaz, O.A., Daroub, S.H., Stuk, J.D., Clark, M.W., Lang, T.A., and Reddy, K.R. 2006.
Sediment inventory and phosphorous fractions for water conservation Area canals in
Everglades. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70: 868-871
4.Elliott, J.C. 1994. Structure and Chemistry of the Apatite and other Calcium Orthophosphates.
Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 404p.
5.Ellison, M.E., and Brett, M.T. 2006. Particulate phosphorus bioavailability as a function of
stream flow and land cover. Water Res. 40: 6. 1258-1268.
6.Guillard, R.R., and Ryther, J.H. 1962. Studies of marine planktonic diatoms: I. Cyclotella
Nana Hustedt and Detonula Confervacea (CLEVE) Gran. Can. J. Microbiol. 8: 2. 229-239.
7.Goedkoop, W., and Pettersson, K. 2000. Seasonal changes in sediment phosphorus forms in
relation to sedimentation and benthic bacterial biomass in Lake Erken. Hydrobiologia.
431: 1. 41-50.
8.He, Z., Senwo, Z.N., and Tazisong, I.A. 2012. Long-term dynamics of labile and stable
phosphorous following poultry litter application to pasture soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant
Anal. 43: 22. 2835-2850.
9.Hedley, M.J., Stewart, J.W.B., and Chauhan, B. 1982. Changes in inorganic and organic soil
phosphorous fractions induced by cultivation practices and by laboratory incubations.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46: 5. 970-976.
10.Hoffman, A.R., Armstrong, D.E., Lathrop, R.C., and Penn, M.R. 2009. Characteristics and
influence of phosphorous accumulated in the bed sediments of a stream located in an
agricultural watershed. Aquat. Geochem. 15: 3. 371-389.
11.Joshi, S.R.J., Li, X., and Jaisi, D.P. 2016. Transformation of phosphorous pools in an
agricultural soil: an application of oxygen-18 labeling in phosphate. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
80: 69-78.
12.Katsaounos, C.Z., Giokas, D.L., Leonardos, I.D., and Karayannis, M.I. 2007. Speciation
of phosphorus fractionation in river sediments by explanatory data analysis. Water Res.
41: 2. 406-418.
13.Kleeberg, A., and Kozerski, H.P. 1997. Phosphorus release in Lake Großer Müggelsee and
its implications for lake restoration. In Shallow Lakes’ 95 Springer Netherlands, 9p.
14.Loeppert, R.H., and Suarez, D.L. 1996. Carbonate and Gypsum. P 437-474, In: D.L. Sparks
(Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA, NO.5, Madison.
15.Lehmann, J., Lan, Z., Hyland, C., Sato, S., Solomon, D., and Ketterings, Q.M. 2005.
Long-term dynamics of phosphorus forms and retention in manure-amended soils. Environ.
Sci. Technol. 39: 17. 6672-6680.
16.Li, B., and Brett, M.T. 2013. The influence of dissolved phosphorus molecular form on
recalcitrance and bioavailability. Environ. Poll. 182: 37-44.
17.Lindsay, W.L. 1979. Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 429p.
18.Liu, S.M., Zhang, J., and Li, D.J. 2004. Phosphorous cycling in sediments of the Bohai and
Yellow Seas. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. 59: 209-218.
19.Liu, J., Luo, X., Zhang, N., and Wu, Y. 2016. Phosphorus release from sediment of
Dianchi Lake and its effect on growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res.
23: 16. 16321-16328.
20.Officer, C.B., Biggs, R.B., Taft, J.L., Cronin, L.E., Tyler, M.A., and Boynton, W.R. 1984.
Chesapeake Bay anoxia: origin, development and significance. Science. 223: 6. 22-27.
21.Okubo, Y., Inoue, T., and Yokota, K. 2012. Estimating bioavailability of soil particulate
phosphorus to Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Appl. Phycol. 24: 6. 1503-1507.
22.Magdoff, F.R., Hryshko, C., Jokela, W.E., Durieux, R.P., and Bu, Y. 1999. Comparison of
phosphorus soil test extractants for plant availability and environmental assessment. Soil Sci.
Soc. Am. J. 63: 999-1006.
23.Mehdizadeh, L., Asadzadeh, F., and Samadi, A. 2015. Application of mathematical models
to describe the particle size distribution of sediments behind successive check dams.
Watershed Engineering and Management. 6: 4. 323-336. (In Persian with English abstract)
24.Murphy, J., and Riley, J.P. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination
phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chim. Acta. 27: 31-36.
25.Pacini, N., and Gächter, R. 1999. Speciation of riverine particulate phosphorus during rain
events. Biogeochem. 47: 1. 87-109.
26.Pheav, S., Bell, R.W., White, P.F., and Kirk, G.J.D. 2005. Phosphorus mass balances for
successive crops of fertilised rainfed rice on a sandy lowland soil. Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosyst. 73: 2-3. 277-292.
27.Pettersson, K. 2001. Phosphorus characteristics of settling and suspended particles in Lake
Erken. Sci. Total Environ. 266: 1. 79-86.
28.Reddy, K.R., Diaz, O.A., Scinto, L.J., and Agami, M. 1995. Phosphorous dynamics in
selected wetlands and streams of the Lake Okeechobee Basin. Ecol. Eng. 5: 183-207.
29.Shelton, J.E., and Coleman, N.T. 1968. Inorganic phosphorous fractions and their
relationship to residual value of large applications of phosphorous on high phosphorous
fixing soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 32: 1. 91-94.
30.Sims, J.T. 1996. Lime requirement. P 491-516, In: D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil
Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA, NO.5, Madison.
31.Thomas, G.W. 1996. Soil pH and Soil Acidity. P 475-490, In: D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of
Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA, NO.5, Madison.
32.Tiessen, H., Stewatt, J.W.B., and Moir, J.O. 1983. Changes in organic and inorganic
phosphorous composition of two grassland soils and their particle size fractions during
60-90 years of cultivation. Soil Sci. 34: 815-823.
33.Tiessen, H.J.W.B., Stewart, J.W.B., and Cole, C.V. 1984. Pathways of phosphorous
transformations in soils of differing pedogenesis. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 4. 853-858.
34.Turner, B.L., Cade-Menun, B.J., Condron, L.M., and Newman, S. 2005. Extraction of soil
organic phosphorus. Talanta. 66: 2. 294-306.
35.Upreti, K., Joshi, S.R., McGrath, J., and Jaisi, D.P. 2015. Factors controlling phosphorus
mobilization in a Coastal Plain tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
79: 3. 826-837.
36.Van Cappellen, P., and Berner, R.A. 1991. Fluorapatite crystal growth from modified
seawater solutions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 55: 1219-1234.
37.Wang, C., Kong, H., He, S., Zheng, X., and Li, C. 2010. The inverse correlation between
growth rate and cell carbohydrate content of Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Appl. Phycol.
22: 105-107.
38.Wang, S., Jin, X., Zhao, H., and Wu, F. 2006. Phosphorus fractions and its release in the
sediments from the shallow lakes in the middle and lower reach of Yangtze River area in
China. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 273: 1. 109-116.
39.Wright, A.L. 2009. Soil phosphorous stocks and distribution in chemical fractions for longterm sugarcane, pasture, turfgrass and forest systems in Florida. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst.
83: 3. 223-231.
40.Williams, J.D.H., Syers, J.K., Harris, R.F., and Armstrong, D.E. 1971. Fractionation of
inorganic phosphate in calcareous lake sediments. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 35: 2. 250-255.
41.Williams, J.D.H., Shear, H., and Thomas, R.L. 1980. Availability to Scenedesmus
quadricauda of different forms of phosphorus in sedimentary materials from the Great Lakes.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 1. 1-11.
42.Wu, M., Huang, S., Wen, W., Sun, X., Tang, X., and Scholz, M. 2011. Nutrient distribution
within and release from the contaminated sediment of Haihe River. J. Environ. Sci.
23: 7. 1086-1094.
43.Zhang, T.Q., and MacKenzie, A.F. 1997. Changes of soil phosphorous fractions under longterm corn monoculture. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 61: 485-493.
44.Zhou, Q., Gibson, C.E., and Zhu, Y. 2001. Evaluation of phosphorus bioavailability in
sediments of three contrasting lakes in China and the UK. Chemosphere. 42: 2. 221-225.
45.Yao, Q.Z., Du, J.T., Chen, H.T., and Yu, Z.G. 2015. Particle-size distribution and
phosphorous forms as a function of hydrological forcing in the Yellow River. Environ.
Sci. Poll. Res. 23: 4. 3385-3398.