تأثیر کاربرد برخی بقایای گیاهان زراعی و تفاله شیرین‌بیان و بیوچار حاصل از آن‌ها بر وضعیت پتاسیم یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه داراب-شیراز

2 دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: استفاده از ترکیب‌های آلی مختلف در کشاورزی ارگانیک می‌تواند سبب تغییر در وضعیت عناصر مورد نیاز گیاه در خاک‌های دچار کمبود گردد. خاک‌های مناطق خشک ایران دارای مقدار قابل توجهی پتاسیم قابل استفاده هستند که با کشاورزی فشرده مقدار آن‌ها در حال کاهش می‌باشد. مقداری از این کمبود می‌تواند با کاربرد ترکیب‌های آلی مختلف در کشاورزی ارگانیک جبران گردد.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای انجام این پژوهش، آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با کاربرد چهار ماده آلی گیاهی و بیوچار حاصل از آن‌ها در یک خاک آهکی و تأثیر آن بر مقدار شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم انجام شد. مقدار 3 گرم کاه گندم، کاه ذرت، سبوس برنج و تفاله ریشه شیرین‌بیان و بیوچار حاصل از آن‌ها به 100 گرم از یک خاک لوم‌رسی آهکی اضافه گردید و نمونه‌ها به‌مدت 90 روز در دمای 2±22 درجه سلسیوس و 50 درصد رطوبت اشباع گردید. نمونه‌های خاک، هواخشک و الک شد و pH، قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی و مقادیر پتاسیم محلول، تبادلی، غیرتبادلی، قابل‌استخراج با اسیدنیتریک و مقدار پتاسیم آزاد شده از کانی‌های خاک اندازه‌گیری گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد مواد آلی گیاهی، pH خاک را تغییر نداد اما بیوچار سبب افزایش pH خاک گردید (میانگین 07/0). قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی خاک با کاربرد کاه گندم و ذرت افزایش یافت و تبدیل مواد آلی گیاهی به بیوچار شوری خاک را بیشتر افزایش داد. تفاله ریشه شیرین‌بیان و بیوچار آن تأثیری بر مقدار شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم نداشتند اما سایر مواد آلی گیاهی و بیوچار حاصل از آن‌ها سبب افزایش پتاسیم قابل‌استخراج با اسیدنیتریک، محلول و تبادلی شدند و ترتیب این افزایش به‌صورت کاه گندم > کاه ذرت > سبوس برنج بود. به‌طور میانگین، بیوچارها نسبت به مواد آلی گیاهی افزایش بیشتری را در مقدار پتاسیم محلول، تبادلی و قابل‌استخراج با اسیدنیتریک نشان دادند (به‌ترتیب 212، 269 و 286 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم). پتاسیم غیرتبادلی با کاربرد مواد آلی گیاهی و بیوچار آن‌ها (به‌جز کاه ذرت) تغییری نیافت. کاه گندم، کاه ذرت و سبوس برنج سبب آزادسازی به‌ترتیب 286، 217 و 146 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم و بیوچار کاه گندم، کاه ذرت و سبوس برنج سبب آزادسازی به‌ترتیب 637، 429 و 290 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم پتاسیم از ساختمان کانی‌های پتاسیم‌دار خاک شدند که این می‌تواند در نتیجه تأثیر ملکول‌های آلی و کاتیون‌های معدنی موجود در ترکیب‌ها بر تجزیه کانی‌ها و آزادسازی پتاسیم از آن‌ها باشد.
نتیجه‌گیری: به‌طورکلی می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که کاربرد مواد آلی گیاهی و بیوچار حاصل از آن‌ها می‌تواند تأثیراتی شگرف بر وضعیت پتاسیم خاک و رفع کمبود این عنصر داشته و در این میان نقش بیوچار به مراتب مهم‌تر از مواد آلی اولیه می‌باشد. از طرف دیگر افزایش شوری و pH خاک به‌ویژه در خاک‌های آهکی مناطق خشک باید در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of application of crop and licorice root residues and their biochars on potassium status of a calcareous soil

نویسنده [English]

  • mahdi najafighiri 1
چکیده [English]

Effect of application of crop and licorice root residues and their biochars on potassium status of a calcareous soil

Abstract

Background and objectives:
Application of different organic materials in organic agriculture may change the status of plant nutrients in deficient soils. Arid soils of Iran may have a considerable content of potassium (K); but their K content is decreasing due to intensive agriculture. This K deficiency may be alleviated by different organic materials application in organic agriculture.
Materials and methods:
In the current investigation, a completely randomized experiment was done with application of four plant residues and their produced biochars to a calcareous soil and their effect on different forms of K. Three grams of wheat straw, corn straw, rice bran and licorice root residue and their produced biochars was added to 100 g of a clay loam calcareous soil and incubated for 90 days at 22±2 °C and 50 % of saturation moisture content. The soil samples were air-dried and sieved and pH, electrical conductivity, and contents of soluble, exchangeable, non-exchangeable, HNO3-extractable K and K release rate from soil minerals were determined.
Results:
Results indicated that plant residues had no effect on soil pH, but all biochars increased soil pH (mean of 0.07). Soil EC was increased with application of wheat and corn straws and conversion of plant residues to biochars had more effect on soil salinity. Licorice root residue and its biochar had no effect on the content of different K forms; but other plant residues and their biochars increased soluble, exchangeable and HNO3-extractable K in the order of wheat residue > corn residue > rice bran. On average, biochars had more effect than plant residues on the content of soluble, exchangeable and HNO3-extractable K (212, 269 and 286 mg kg-1, respectively). The content of HNO3-extractable K was not affected with plant residues and their biochars (except for corn straw). Wheat and corn straws and rice bran released 286, 217 and 146 mg K kg-1, respectively; and their biochars released 637, 429 and 290 mg K kg-1, respectively from K-bearing minerals and this may be due to the effect of organic molecules and non-organic cations of organic materials on mineral weathering and K release.
Conclusion:
It is concluded that application of plant residues and their biochars may have significant effects on soil K status and alleviation of K deficiency and the role of biochar is more important than primary plant residues. On the other hand, increase in soil salinity and pH especially in calcareous soils of arid land should be take into consideration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Potassium release
  • Electrical conductivity (EC)
  • Soil pH
  • Potassium forms
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